The areas of origin

Abruzzo

The history of wine in Abruzzo has distant origins. From Ovidio to Polibio, in fact, there are many and authoritative testimonies of the existence of a wine tradition already in antiquity. Concentrated until the Renaissance in the province of L'Aquila, Abruzzo's viticulture experienced a phase of rapid transformation, especially in the period of unification. Since the mid-twentieth century, the production of wine in Abruzzo has become increasingly specialized and concentrated in areas with a high wine-growing vocation, which thanks to good ventilation and strong temperature variations between day and night, guarantee an ideal microclimate for production of high quality grapes.

Alsazia

Alsace is a wine region located in the north-eastern part of France, between the Vosges mountains and the German border, marked by the Rhine river. The presence of the Vosges mountain range contributes decisively to defining the climatic characteristics, protecting the area from the winds from the west and thinning rainy phenomena. Alsace differs from the rest of France by an ubiquitous German culture which dictates architectural styles and even influences the production of wine. It is therefore not surprising that mostly white wines are produced with vines such as Riesling or Gewürztraminer at the center. Here, Pinot Gris which in other French regions is relegated to assembly varieties, takes on a noble and important connotation. There is also a share of sweet wines that differ in sugar residue and of which the highest quality is highlighted through the mentions Vendanges Tardives and Selection de Grains Nobles.

Alto Adige

Wine and tradition are an inseparable combination in the South Tyrol region. In this area, viticulture has ancient origins and today's and very varied wine production is supported by a centuries-old tradition. This region, in fact, was renowned for its wines already in Roman times and still today wine production retains a primary role in the economy of the region, thanks above all to an environmental predisposition that allows you to put quality first of all, with a variety of vines difficult to find in other areas.

Andalusia

Andalusia is, excluding the islands, among the southernmost regions of Spain, which has become famous all over the world for the production of Sherry fortified wine. A very populous area, due to its proximity to the African continent it has been affected by an incessant succession of migrations that have led over time to the desire to sculpt a strong and unique cultural identity: bullfighting and flamenco originated precisely in Andalusia. The region also boasts a long wine history but, although table wines are also produced, the workhorse is certainly represented by fortified wines. It is no coincidence that the region hosts 5 sub-regions in which fortified wines or dessert wines with denomination of origin are mainly produced: Jerez, historic port and home of Sherry, Sanlucar de Barrameda known for its Manzanilla, Montilla-Moriles specialized in wines from non-fortified desserts made from Moscatel, Malaga and Condado de Huelva grapes.

Anguilla

Armagnac

Australia Meridionale

South Australia is one of the six states of the continent located, as the name suggests, in the southernmost part of the island. Considered the production engine of the Australian wine industry, it is responsible for about half of the continent's total production. But there are countless high quality wines, sometimes even collectible ones, that can be found, especially made from the grape variety symbol of the region: Shiraz. Red wines also thrive on Limestone Coast Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Grenache has also adapted well to the climate of South Australia: together with Shiraz and Mourvèdre it forms the classic GSM blend, which has become famous in the Rhone Valley. Although in smaller quantities there are several European varieties such as Tempranillo, Nebbiolo, Montepulciano and Petit Verdot. Among the white wines there are few but extraordinary excellences based on Riesling and Chardonnay from the Adelaide Hills or the Limestone Coast. Given the size of the wine growing region, the climate and topography vary greatly from one area to another, as does the altitude which can range from nearly sea level at Langhorne Creek up to 600 meters in parts of Piccadilly Valley on the hills of Adelaide. This does not allow to define precisely the characteristics of its terroir which can be very varied, even between plots of the same company. The south-eastern corner is cooler and less arid than the northern one, too hot for the cultivation of Vitis vinifera. The climate is moderated by the presence of two large gulfs. Between the eastern side of the Gulf of St. Vincent and the Murray River there is an approximately 80km wide belt within which are the famous vineyards of Barossa Valley, Eden Valley, Clare Valley and McLaren Vale.

Baja California

Basilicata

Basilicata's millennial vocation for viticulture and wine production, with a past that dates back to the ancient times of Enotri and Lucani. A long history that today intertwines tradition, culture and innovation, expressing all the potential of a terroir capable of giving great excellence. Basilicata is in fact characterized by a limited production from the quantitative point of view, but it offers very interesting ideas both as regards the local vines and for the quality of the wines produced. The 3 main areas of wine production in this region are the Vulture area, the Matera area and the upper Val d'Agri.

Bordeaux

Located in the southwestern part of France, Bordeaux is one of the most famous and prestigious wine regions in the world. It became famous for its legendary red wines produced by the most important estates, châteaux, characterized for the most part by a dry, elegant and fairly full-bodied profile, with intense aromas, the result of the classic Bordeaux blend based on Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot is also a land of excellent quality white wines made from Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc grapes, both dry and moldy and botrytized, as in the case of the famous Sauternes or Barsac. The climate is mild not only due to the latitude of Bordeaux, exactly halfway between the Equator and the North Pole, but also and above all due to the proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and the presence of several rivers including the Dordogne, the Garonne and the Gironde estuary. Bordeaux, which could translate as "close to the waters", takes its name from the port city of the same name, the fulcrum of the region's commercial success, while internal trade was favored by the presence of the aforementioned waterways. The thick pine forest to the south, the Foret des Landes protects Bordeaux from the brackish winds of the Atlantic Ocean. The composition of the soil is also an important factor for Bordeaux viticulture. The gravelly soils of the region ensure excellent water drainage, and it is thanks to this characteristic that one of the largest wine-growing areas in Bordeaux has been named Graves. The first and most famous classification system adopted, still in force today, to recognize the value of Bordeaux wines was that of 1855, concerning only wines produced in the Médoc, which rewarded the quality of the producer more than the specific production area. , or terroir, with the term Cru Classé and a category that assigned a level of quality, from Premier Cru to Cinquième Cru. The 1855 classification also established quality levels for Sauternes and Barsac which were divided into Premier Cru Supérieur Classé, Premier Cru Classé and Deuxième Cru Classé. But other classification systems have been sanctioned: for the wines of the Grave to which wines of greater quality and prestige were assigned the mention Cru Classé; for the wines of Saint-Émilion, the only one to be reviewed every 10 years, which considered Premier Grand Cru Classé the first category divided further into groups A and B, of which group A constituted the superior quality division. Other famous areas of Bordeaux, including Canon-Fronsac, Entre-Duex-Mers, Fronsac and Pomerol, have never been regulated by any classification system. Generally the producers included in the categories of the various classification systems operate with very strict and quality production criteria, with the consequence of a considerable increase in prices. These classifications include only a small part of the wines produced in Bordeaux, leaving out hundreds of châteaux which still deserved attention. For this reason, in 1932 a special category was established for the châteaux of the Médoc excluded from the classification of 1855 and which took the name of Cru Bourgeois.

Borgogna

Located in the eastern part of France, Burgundy is a historic wine region that enjoys a very high reputation around the world. Although the production is quantitatively lower than that of Bordeaux, some of the most exclusive wines come from Burgundy. Within the region, several sub-areas can be distinguished, each of which differs in particular characteristics. Four of these are located in a thin strip of land, between the cities of Dijon and Macon, and are, from north to south: the Côte d'Or which includes the Côte de Nuits and the Côte de Beaune, the Côte Chalonnaise and Maconnais . Chablis, located in an isolated package of limestone hills to the northwest produces white wines so distinctive that it is often considered a region in its own right. Further south is Beaujolais, considered to belong to Burgundy, despite the fact that it is geographically inserted within the Rhône-Alpes. The grape varieties that are the protagonists of the elegant Burgundy wines are Pinot Noir and Chardonnay. Smaller varieties such as Gamay and Aligote produce wines with a more rustic style. The production of wine takes place in three distinct ways: the first involves the purchase of grapes or wine by negociants who sell it in their own name, the second through cooperative forms, the third less common concerns producers with vineyards and cellars. Property. The Burgundy vineyard is very complex and fragmented, this is also due to the Napoleonic law on the equitable hereditary division between the legitimate heirs, with the consequent parcelling of the land into small domaine. However, there are exceptions that go by the name of "monopole": vineyards, the so-called climat, or parts of them, the so-called lieux-dits, protected and delineated by dry stone walls called "clos". The climate of the region is predominantly continental but the diversity of terroir is evident and gives rise to very varied oenological expressions. The presence of calcareous soils is of fundamental importance for the minerality and complexity it brings to white wines. The best vineyards are classified into Grand Cru and Premier Cru, in order of status.

Burgenland

Located on the eastern border of Austria, Burgenland is a region renowned for some very high quality white wines which is also rediscovering a thriving production of red wines made from Blaufränkisch and Zweigelt grapes which can benefit from sunny and continental summers. Sweet botrytised wines are a specialty of the region, especially those produced in the terroir that develops around Lake Neusiedl. The region extends over a small strip of land that stretches from the Danube River to Styria. To the west it meets the Alps, to the east it borders on Hungary with which it shares its topographical configuration, so much so that Sopron could be called its extension. It houses four DAC denominations: Neusiedlersee, Leithaberg, Mittelburgenland and Eisenberg. Wines that do not meet the requirements to bear these denominations may indicate the broader Burgenland denomination on the label.

Calabria

The viticulture in Calabria has its roots in a distant time, dating back to the civilization of Magna Grecia. Indeed, it was the Greeks, in fact, who promoted the development of the cultivation of vines in this rich and varied region, recognizing in it a fertile territory for the production of wine. The geographical conformation of Calabria, with a remarkable development of the coast and a substantially mountainous territory, has meant that the cultivation of the vine was concentrated in 3 main areas: that of the Pollino massif, the Tyrrhenian and Ionian offshoots of the Sila and the area of the 'Aspromonte.

California

California is the largest and most important wine growing region in the United States. It extends for two thirds of the west coast covering 10 degrees of latitude, with a topography at least as complex as its climate which allows the producers of the region a great deal of choice. California wines have only risen to international prominence in the last few decades but the nation's wine history begins more than 200 years ago. The European vine plants were introduced by the colonizers and missionaries who cultivated the Mission grape variety, today not very widespread but essential for the viticulture of Central and South America. In the first half of the twentieth century, the wine industry was severely hampered by wars, prohibition and the crisis known as the Great Depression, but since 1970 the producers gave birth to a lively and thriving recovery and today California is home to some of the largest companies around the world as well as small wineries able to fetch astronomical prices for their cult wines. California currently produces 90% of American wine, both red and white and sparkling wines. Among the main red grape varieties we find Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Merlot, Syrah and Zinfandel, while the white grape varieties include Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. The robust American rootstocks are known worldwide for their resistance to the fearsome phylloxera aphid. Various soils and climates arise from a plurality of factors such as altitude, latitude and proximity to the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. In summer, the cold coastal waters help to create a fog bank that can also move towards the hinterland, cooling the surrounding area. The mountainous areas of the region limit the influence of the maritime climate. Mainly two climatic areas are established: the colder one near the coast, suitable for the cultivation of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay vines, and the one in the hinterland where the climate is warmer and more suitable for the cultivation of Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel guaranteeing excellent results. in both contexts.

Campania

Campania is a region with an ancient winemaking tradition, one of the first territories in the world to have seen the settlement, cultivation, study of the vine and the production of wine. The spread of the vine, in fact, dates back to pre-Roman times, thanks above all to a particularly favorable climate and the particular nature of the soil. This region has a rich heritage of high quality grapes, which give life to a wide variety of wines, both white and red, including many excellences, well known and appreciated not only in Italy, but also abroad.

Canelones

Canelones is an Uruguayan administrative region, located just north of the capital Montevideo, which is home to most of the nation's vineyards. Located to the south, inland from the Atlantic coast, it extends westwards until it reaches the Rio de la Plata estuary. The epicenter of the wine industry revolves around the cities of Juanico and Progreso, in the southwest of the region. The main grape variety is definitely Tannat, which has a greater number of plants than anywhere else in the world. Syrah, Cabernet Franc and Merlot are also widespread among the red grape varieties, while the white grape varieties include Pinot Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay. The territory is flat or has low altitudes. Given its latitude, 33-34 ° S, it has a mild climate: the summer heat peaks are softened by the cold currents coming from the Atlantic Ocean. The Canelones winemakers believe that the pedo-climatic conditions of the region significantly resemble those of the Bordeaux vineyards.

Catalogna

Champagne

Champagne is the most famous sparkling wine in the world and the name of the wine region it comes from. The excellence of the productions, its exclusive character and the allure it has acquired over time make it an absolute model for all bubbles. Located at a north latitude of 49 °, the Champagne region lies on the northern edge of the vine growing areas, with average temperatures below those of any other French wine region. In this type of climate, the grapes do not reach the optimal ripeness for a traditional vinification but give their best following the second fermentation in the bottle characteristic of the Champenoise sparkling method, known in Italy as the Classic Method. The varieties that compose it are generally Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay but the varieties Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Petit Meslier and Arbane are also allowed in small quantities. The choice of the main grape varieties to be used for the production of champagne depend solely on their ability to adapt to this terroir and on the important results they are able to guarantee, among the few varieties able to settle in such a cold and humid climate. Each of them makes its own contribution in terms of quality and characteristics: the Pinot Nero structure and aromas of black fruits, the Pinot Meunier acidity and fruit, the Chardonnay elegance and finesse, but also a perfect creaminess. Champagnes differ in color, degree of sweetness, grape variety or in the fact that they are produced from a single vintage, in the case of vintage, or from several vintages, for champagne sans année. We can speak of Champagne Blanc de Noirs if obtained only from black berried grapes, Blanc de Blancs if only from white berried grapes. Champagne Rosé owes its rosé color from the blend of red wine and white wine that make up its cuvée. The Grand Cru and Premier Cru Champagnes are those produced in the best and most prestigious vineyards of the region. However, the name of the maison, producer, is what determines the greater or lesser reputation. The particular soil also contributes to determining the exclusivity of these bubbles, with a chalky structure with a much finer grain than the calcareous soils of other French wine regions and porous. This particular conformation makes the minerals more easily absorbed by the roots and provides excellent drainage. This permeability allows access to water resources far below, favoring strong root development and ensuring a continuous water supply. Even within this relatively coherent and constant terroir, there are variations in terroir and climate that make the different areas more suited to the needs of the three main grape varieties. La Cote des Blancs, aptly named Cote des Blancs - and in particular the Cote de Sezanne - is where the best Chardonnay sites are found, while the Montagne de Reims and Vallee de la Marne are ideal for Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier.

Douro

Emilia Romagna

The territory of Emilia Romagna is divided in two by the Via Emilia, which crosses it in all its length: on one side the Apennines, with its soft reliefs particularly suited to viticulture, on the other the plain, which descends towards the Po to the Adriatic coast. Along the Via Emilia there are four production areas: the Colli di Piacenza and Parma, where Bonarda and Barbera prevail; the lands of Lambrusco, extended from the hills to the banks of the Po between Reggio Emilia and Modena; the Colli Bolognesi and the lower Rhine valley, where traditional white wines are produced; finally Romagna, with Sangiovese, Albana and Trebbiano to dominate the scene.

Friuli Venezia Giulia

Friuli Venezia Giulia, despite the reduced territorial extension, occupies a first-rate role in Italian wine production. This is also thanks to the commitment of small and large producers who have been able to combine an ancient tradition with the most modern technologies in terms of wine production, with the constant objective of quality. Do not underestimate the physical and geographical characteristics of the region, which alternates high plains with lands overlooking the Venetian lagoon, soft hills with imposing reliefs, with a great variety of territories that give life to wines of great value and with peculiar characteristics.

Galizia

Highland

Islands

Islay

Kamptal

Small and prestigious wine district located 55 kilometers north-east of Vienna which extends around the town of Langenlois. Kamptal is split in two by the Kamp River which flows south before flowing into the Danube. Steep and sunny terraced vineyards overlook the river, feeling the warm climatic influence of the Pannonian plain to the east and the cool climate of the Waldviertel forests to the west. The considerable temperature range between day and night allows the grapes to ripen during the day and to retain good acidity during the night. Kamptal produces some of the best white wines in the world. Among these stands out the Riesling with the characteristic scent of flint, which comes from soils with a thin layer of earth that forces the plants to dig deep into the ground to obtain nutrients and stability, producing stronger plants with lower yields with implications absolutely positive on the quality of the grapes. Then we find the rich and spicy Grüner Veltliner which prefers deeper soils, mostly clayey and with a good presence of loess, which contribute to giving greater concentration to the wines. The most renowned areas include Heiligenstein, Gaisberg, Steinmassl and Lamm, among the 18 sites classified as Erste Lage, grand cru. Kamptal is also home to some high-quality reds made from Zweigelt grapes.

Kentucky

Languedoc-Roussillon

Lazio

The viticulture in Lazio is found mainly in the hilly areas, with reference to two main production areas: the Castelli Romani, consisting of the reliefs that rise south-east of Rome, and the Viterbo area, also known by the ancient term of Tucsia . A common feature of the two areas is the strongly volcanic terrain. Much of the region's production is represented by white wines, generally still and characterized by good fleshiness and pleasantly fruity hints. Immediate and straightforward wines, which perfectly match the local gastronomic tradition.

Liguria

Liguria is one of the smallest wine regions in Italy. Its shape, close between the Alps, the Apennines and the sea, makes viticulture extremely difficult; at the same time, the mild climate that characterizes the hilly area of the immediate hinterland represents an extremely favorable condition for the cultivation of the vine. For this reason, Liguria boasts a good tradition in the wine sector, positively influenced also by the presence of the sea which, in addition to giving a particular character to the wines, has always favored their marketing and diffusion.

Loira

The Loire Valley is a key region for French enology. Developed around the course of the Loire River, it extends from the hills of Auvergne to the coastal plains near Nantes. Important both in terms of quantity and quality, it makes diversity its absolute strength: in the Loire Valley both light and vibrant Muscadet and sparkling versions of Vouvray are produced, passing through the sweet and honeyed Bonnezeaux to finish with white wines that made famous this wine region, those of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé. The white berried varieties are decidedly more widespread, with a good presence of Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Chenin and Melon de Bourgogne. However, the production of red wines such as the light and fruity Gamay or the spicy and tannic Bourgueil is also gaining momentum. An important role is played by the Cabernet Franc grape which is part of the composition of the Chinon Rouge and Saumur wines among others. The climate varies from continental, north of the Loire, to maritime as you get closer to the Atlantic coast, while the soils vary from the hard granite of the Côtes du Forez, to the soft and brittle tuff of Anjou, passing through soils characterized by flint and limestone around Sancerre and Pouilly sur Loire. Such diversity made it necessary to divide the Loire Valley into smaller areas. The main ones are Pays Nantais known for Muscadet wines, Anjou for its Chenin Blanc, Tourraine for its reds made from Cabernet Franc grapes, but above all the Upper Loire, home of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé wines made from Sauvignon Blanc grapes. .

Lombardia

Limited production in terms of quantity, but a great variety of territories and wines. Here is what characterizes the wine-growing reality of Lombardy, which presents very different productions thanks to a remarkable heterogeneity of the environments, from the mountains to the hills, from the plains to the lakes. From the great reds of the Valtellina to the bubbles of Franciacorta and Oltrepò, Lombardy is home to denominations of national fame and small lesser known denominations. National and international vines coexist in this region, creating wine products more or less tied to the territory, but always united by a great quality.

Maldonado

An emerging region located south of Uruguay, Maldonado represents a promise for the nation's enological future. Located at the same latitudes as other major wine producing countries, such as Argentina, Chile, Australia and South Africa, it is characterized by a warm maritime climate mitigated by the cool breezes coming from the Atlantic Ocean, but also by higher altitudes. and a greater geographical variety than the rest of the nation. The soils are poor and guarantee good drainage, made up of a mixture of granite, rock and sand. The vineyards, located in the hills of the hinterland, host both red grape varieties, the main ones being Tannat, Merlot, Cabernet and Malbec, and white grape varieties, such as Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Sémillon, Riesling and Albariño.

Marche

Viticulture in the Marche begins with the arrival of the Syracusan Greeks and establishes itself with the Romans, thanks to whom the fame of the Piceno wine spread throughout the empire. Always a land of excellence, this region ranks among the Italian areas with the highest wine-growing vocation, which is expressed through a plurality of wine expressions. The influence of the Adriatic Sea on which the Marche overlook and the natural barriers created by the mountains, create in this territory rare and particular microclimates that give life to typical wines, with unmistakable aromas, the production of which is mostly entrusted to small cellars, where making wine is a tradition handed down from generation to generation.

Marlborough

Martinica

Mendoza

Mendoza is by far the largest wine region in Argentina, located in the west on a high-altitude plateau on the edge of the Andes. The vineyards are mainly concentrated in the northern part of the region and cover 70% of Argentina's wine production. The Malbec grape, imported by the French agronomist Miguel Aimé Pouget, has found full citizenship in this part of the New World, so much so that the red wines obtained from this grape variety, very concentrated and intense, have become famous all over the world: Luján de Cuyo, the Maipu Valley and the Uco Valley are home to some of the biggest names in Argentine wine. The wine history of the region dates back to the colonial era, with the first vines planted by the priests of the Jesuit order in the mid-16th century. The production formerly intended for internal use, experienced a flourishing expansion in 1885 with the construction of a railway line that connected Mendoza to the capital Buenos Aires, favoring the transport and marketing of wine outside the region. The vineyards located at important altitudes, generally between 800 and 1,200 meters above sea level, can benefit from a more moderate climate than the very hot and dry one that can be found at low altitudes. Furthermore, the considerable excursion between day and night, due to the intervention of the cold westerly winds, causes a slowdown in ripening which brings richer and more mature flavors to the grapes. The always hot and dry harvest periods allow winegrowers to choose the most appropriate time for harvesting based solely on the stage of maturation reached and to decide with greater freedom the production styles they intend to adopt for their wines. The dry and not very fertile soil is perfect for the cultivation of the vine, forced to develop very deep roots to reach the water and nourishment they need, producing small and concentrated berries that will give life to structured, mineral and tannin wines I decided. In addition to Malbec, in Mendoza there is also space for the cultivation of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay, Torrontés and Sauvignon Blanc grapes, but the region's journey as a producer of quality sparkling wines has also recently begun. The natural beauty of the area makes it a popular wine tourism destination.

Molise

Molise is a small region with an absolutely unique territorial morphology. Viticulture, practiced both in the hills and in mountainous areas, has ancient origins that date back to the Samnites, even if it was the Romans who later extended the cultivation of the vine to larger territories. Pristine landscapes, great potential and a tradition handed down from father to son: these are the three strengths of Molise wine production, which over time has managed to find its rightful place in the national wine scene, managing to fully express its identity and typicality .

Mosella

Neusiedlersee

Palatinato

Patagonia

Patagonia is the southernmost wine region of South America: a remote and desert area which, contrary to all expectations, has proven itself, also thanks to its cool and dry climate, particularly suitable for the production of elegant red wines from Pinot Noir and Malbec grapes . It is a very large area, twice the size of California, which extends for 300 kilometers along the Rio Negro, Neuquén, Anelo and Choele rivers. The alternation of hot days and cold nights slow down the maturation and prolong it, leading to the development of the rich variety of grapes. Patagonia's reputation is due to its subregion Rio Negro and the emerging Neuquén, from which more European-style wines originate. If it is true that Malbec plays a central role in the wine production of Patagonia, the absolute primacy belongs to Pinot Noir.

Piemonte

Land of wine tradition since ancient times, Piedmont produces great wines on its hills and on the Alpine and pre-Alpine ranges. In these places, which differ thanks to the different geographical and climatic characteristics that characterize them, the manual work of man is predominant and low yields per hectare are pursued, to enhance the quality of the wines that come to life here. From the refined and sumptuous reds to the round and fragrant whites, to the inviting and pleasant dessert wines, the varied wine heritage of this region makes it an area of extraordinary excellence, appreciated both nationally and internationally.

Provenza

Provence occupies the southeastern corner of France and is a wine region known above all for the quality of its rosé wines. It is characterized by a decidedly mild Mediterranean climate which contributes to creating ideal conditions for viticulture in this area. With the passing of the years and the modernization found in the oenological field, the popular grapes Greanche, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon have taken the place of the traditional Carignan, Barbaroux and Calitor. However, in recent years, the native grapes of Mourvèdre, Tibouron and Rolle, corresponding to Vermentino, have also been enjoying success. The rather vast territory includes few denominations in proportion: the largest is the Côtes de Provence but the Côteaux d'Aix-en-Provence, Ventoux and Luberon are also noteworthy. In Provence you can also find the intensely fragrant red wines of Bandol or the full-bodied whites of Cassis, however its name remains inextricably linked to its internationally renowned rosé wines.

Puente Alto

Puente Alto is located within the Maipo Valley, south of Santiago. Cabernet Sauvignon is the predominant variety of the region and the wines it produces are held in high esteem, but wines made from Syrah, Carménère and Chardonnay grapes are also produced. First recognized Chilean terroir, crossed by the Maipo River on its way from the Andes to the Pacific Ocean, it is located at an altitude of about 700 meters above sea level. This contributes, together with the presence of a bridge that crosses the Maipo river, to give the name of "high bridge". The terroir is strongly influenced by the Andes, in fact the soil of the region, considered the strong point of Puente Alto, is made up of Andean rocks eroded by the river. Alluvial in nature, it limits the vigor of the vine which produces small and concentrated berries from which very structured and mineral wines are produced, with a good tannic presence. In addition, the Andes also influence the climate of the region: the vineyards are protected from intense sunlight in the morning while the nights are very cool thanks to the intervention of the alpine winds. The altitude exacerbates this temperature range by slowing the ripening of the grapes overnight which leads to a general balance of flavor and freshness in the wines of Puente Alto. The vine was grown in this region in 1800 with the planting of the pioneering Cousiño Macul vineyard, but it owes its fame to names such as Almaviva and Don Melchor but above all to Viñedo Chadwick who, thanks to a comparison of this wine with great names of French wine including Château Lafite, Château Latour and Château Margaux, once and for all sanctioned its value and prestige.

Puglia

A thriving and fertile territory, dedicated to viticulture since the time of Greek civilization, Puglia enjoys a long winemaking tradition thanks to the climatic conditions favorable for the cultivation of the vine. The three main wine-growing areas of the region are the province of Foggia, the Terra di Bari and Salento. The Apulian production, in terms of quantity, has always been among the main ones in Italy and, in recent years, an increasing attention has been paid to quality. For this reason, and thanks to its enormous wine-growing potential, Apulian wines gained fame not only nationally, but also internationally.

Rheingau

Rioja

Salta

Located in the northernmost part of Argentina, the Salta region includes extreme vineyards both in latitude, close to that of the Equator, and in altitude, reaching up to 3,000 meters above sea level. The high temperatures typical of these geographical coordinates meet the colder ones due to the considerable height, generating an ideal climate for quality viticulture. The mountain ranges hinder the passage of heavy rain clouds resulting in clear skies and low rainfall, but also provide the necessary irrigation through melt water from the snow-capped peaks. Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Tannat are the most important red berried varieties of the region, while Chardonnay and Torrontés stand out among the white berried varieties. Salta's main wine areas are Cafayate and the Molinos vineyards. Cafayate, in particular, is rapidly gaining an international reputation for the high quality of the wines produced there, as well as for the peculiarities of its terroir.

San Juan

San Juan is the second most productive region of Argentina after Mendoza. Its territory is entirely included among the hills that precede the Andes mountain range. It is a semi-desert region, with a continental and very dry climate, where viticulture can only take place due to the presence of the San Juan and Jachal rivers and efficient irrigation systems, but also from the average high altitude at which the vineyards are located which mitigates local temperatures. Here the vines of European origin, such as Bonarda, Syrah, Cabernet, Malbec and Merlot for the red wines and Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Torrontés and Viognier for the whites, have found a thriving place for their vegetative growth. Within San Juan, three sub-regions can be distinguished, one more interesting than the other. The Pedernal Valley, known for the production of high quality wines, takes its name from the Spanish term used to indicate the flints of which its soils are rich, which limit the yield and growth of plants leading to the production of wines with more concentrated aromas and tannins. The Tullum Valley, on the other hand, is recognized for the production of dense and peppery Syrah rich in character and for its quality whites. Finally, the Valle di Zonda has as its characterizing element the strong wind of the same name Zonda which contributes both positively and negatively to viticulture: it protects from the risk of disease but at the same time hinders the growth of younger plants. The porous and rocky soils of this territory require the development of deep roots in order to reach the water necessary for their development, with the effect of producing grapes with a good concentration of sugars and tannins which will result in complex wines and structured.

Santorini

Sardegna

Sardinia and viticulture, a millenary tradition that has its roots in the distant times of the Nuragics and which is found in the many excellences produced in this area. The climate, the soil and the vines of this region in fact give rise to wines of great quality, some robust and vigorous, others elegant and refined, depending on the environment in which they are produced. The vineyards are an integral part of the Sardinian landscape, from the fertile plains near the sea to the hills and inland areas, where the winemaking activity is still tied to ancient traditions. It is precisely for this reason that Sardinian wines are always a full expression of the land in which they are produced.

Sicilia

For the climatic conditions, the mild temperatures, the hilly lands, the light sea breeze and the sun, Sicily presents a perfect environment for the cultivation of the vine and the production of wine. The Sicilian vineyard is divided into three large districts: the western one of Trapanese with the famous wines of Marsala, the north-eastern one with the wines of Etna and the southern one with the products of Ragusano. With its wines, this region testifies to a centuries-old vocation for viticulture, which has its roots already in the time of the Greeks. Sicilian wine production is currently experiencing an important turning point: the enhancement of the potential of the island that has not yet been fully expressed.

Speyside

Sud-ovest della Francia

Szekszard

Szekszard is a wine region located south of Hungary not well known on the international wine scene but which produces pleasant and fragrant red wines, relatively well structured from Kekfrankos, Kadarka grapes and the typical Bordeaux varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot; the blend at the base of the classic Bikaver, a wine made famous by the Eger region. It is located on the western border of Alföld - the great Hungarian plain that occupies most of the wider Pannonian Plain, about 160 km from the coast. The climate is sunny, warm, dry and continental: sultry summer afternoons are followed by cold nights, with considerable changes in temperature. The Pannonian Plain is surrounded by vast mountain ranges, the Alps to the west, the Dinaric Alps to the south and the Carpathians to the north and east, which protect it from climatic influences from the Mediterranean or the Black Sea. In addition to producing red wines, Szekszard is also land of white wines, made mainly from Riesling Italico or Weslchriesling and Chardonnay grapes which are distinguished by low acidity and a delicate, spicy and woody character due to the time spent in Hungarian oak barrels. Light wines based on Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc are occasionally produced in the colder mesoclimate.

Tennessee

Tokaj

Tokaj, formerly known as Tokaj-Hegyalja, is a wine-growing region of Hungary that has gained a high international reputation thanks to the fame of its sweet nectar-like wines, a product so esteemed that it is also mentioned within of the Hungarian national anthem. Located in the north-east near the border with Slovakia, it covers an area of about 40 km. Its main production centers are the cities of Mad, Tarcal and Tokaj, from which the region takes its name. The climate is relatively warm, protected by the rising mountain range of the Carpathians. The soils are very varied, with volcanic clays in the highest parts of the hill slopes and layers of loess and other soils of sedimentary origin to cover the base. Sandy soils prevail near the banks of the Bodrog River, especially around the city of Tokaj. The grape varieties with which Tokaji wines are produced are Furmint, Harslevelu, and Muscat Blanc (Sárga Muskotály in Hungarian). Dominating the blend, Furmint has naturally high acidity and high sugar levels that guarantee phenomenal aging potential, as well as a pleasantly spicy flavor profile unlike any other sweet passito wine. Tokaji is obtained by means of botrytized grapes (aszú), that is covered by the noble rot Botrytis cinerea which dehydrates the berries, concentrating the sugars and leaving a characteristic honeysuckle aroma. The sweetness of botrytized Tokaji wines is expressed in puttonyos. A puttonyo is a large basket used for harvesting grapes: the number of puttonyos added to a 136-liter barrel of base wine is a traditional measure of the sweetness of the wine. Today this sweetness is expressed in grams of sugar per liter, with 3 puttonyos corresponding to 25 grams per liter, the lowest sugar content, up to Eszencia, with 800 grams per liter, which is sweet and so low in alcohol not even be considered a wine. Tokaji also produces non-botrytized wines which are gradually gaining more popularity. Since Hungary imposed stringent regulations on the production of Tokaj wines, there have been several legal disputes concerning the use of the name as Tokay is the name that has always been used as a synonym for Pinot Grigio, in Alsace, and in Friuli it is preceded traditionally the prefix Tocai to the Friulano variety.

Toscana

Tuscany represents one of the most important wine regions in the world and is one of the most representative areas for the production of wine in Italy. The crops are mainly distributed on hilly areas, particularly suited to viticulture both for climatic and geological reasons, and to a lesser extent on the plain. The largest areas of wine production in Tuscany are Chianti, Maremma and the province of Siena, flanked by many other small areas with a high wine vocation. The constant trend towards specialization testifies to the importance of viticulture in Tuscany, which is at the top of Italy for the production of DOC wines.

Trentino

Trentino is a region where different climates and soils combine to produce exceptional wines. From Lake Garda to the terraces of the Cembra Valley, Trentino winemakers produce unique wines with great care. There are three native vines: Nosiola from which an excellent vin santo is also obtained, Marzemino della Vallagarina and Teroldego della Piana Rotaliana. But in Trentino there are also international grape varieties such as Müller-Thurgau from which fine white wines are obtained, Chardonnay and Pinot Noir with which great Trento Doc sparkling wines are made.

Umbria

Umbria, a small region that has always been identified as the green heart of Italy, is characterized by a limited quantity of wine production, but of excellent quality. Here the ancient peasant traditions are still alive, which give life to wines with a strong link with the centuries-old tradition and the territory. Numerous archaeological finds testify that the Etruscans and Umbrians were already involved in viticulture, even before the arrival of the Romans. This long wine history is closely linked to the climatic and geographical characteristics of the region, which with its hills represents an ideal territory for the cultivation of the vine.

Valle Central

The Central Valley is one of the most important Chilean productive regions in terms of volume, which extends between the Valle del Maipo and that of the Maule covering a distance of about 400 kilometers. Inside it includes a considerable variety of climates and terroirs as well as production styles, from the Bordeaux-style wines typical of Maipo to the more traditional ones characteristic of Maule. But wines obtained from cooler climates, such as those made from vineyards located in the Andean Prealps and the river valleys tempered by the proximity to the Pacific Ocean, have been successful in recent years. The most common vines are those of international origin, above all Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. Carmenère is also given due consideration and it is not uncommon for winemakers to experiment with varieties such as Viognier, Riesling and even Gewurztraminer.

Valle d'Aosta

Valle de Casablanca

Located 100 kilometers north-west of the capital of Santiago, the Valle de Casablanca is mainly known for its fresh white wines produced from Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay grapes, but Pinot Noir is also cultivated with good results. suitable for the cooler climates of the coastal area. Being only 30 kilometers from the Pacific Ocean, it is strongly affected by the cold Humboldt current that goes up the western coast of Chile from the Antarctic. The latitude so close to that of the Equator would make viticulture impossible but the oceanic influence that brings fresh fog in the morning , cool afternoon breezes and good cloud cover are able to counterbalance this extreme condition by creating an exclusive place of cultivation. The longer ripening period allows the white grapes to develop greater gustatory complexity while maintaining a good balance between the concentration of sugars and acids. For some years now, aromatic white grape varieties such as Gewürztraminer and Riesling have also been flourishing, demonstrating that Chile is not a viticultural area entirely reserved for red wines.

Valle de Colchagua

The Valle de Colchagua is one of the most promising areas of South America, much more recent than the famous Valle del Maipo, from which some of the nation's most prestigious wines come. Characterized by very advantageous climatic conditions, it attracted interest no less than the Rothschilds of Bordeaux who decided to found their Los Vascos winery here. Located near the Equator line, it is a very hot and dry area, mitigated by the breezes of the Pacific Ocean and by occasional refreshing rains, creating ideal conditions for the cultivation of the vine. The great attention paid in recent years to wine tourism has led this region to equip itself with structures designed specifically to create attraction for tourists, becoming in some ways comparable to the California Napa Valley.

Valle de Leyda

Valle de Leyda is a small sub-region of the wider San Antonio Valley, located 90 kilometers west of the capital of Santiago. Its cool climate due to the effect of the Humboldt Antarctic Current helps to generate fresh and vibrant wines which are mainly produced with Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes. There is no shortage of excellent examples of wines made from Syrah and Sauvignon Blanc grapes. The region stretches along a series of rolling hills on the marine side of the coastal range that protects much of central Chile from ocean influences. The proximity to the coast allows the vineyards to benefit from cold breezes and the morning fog that contribute to mitigate the high temperatures overall, therefore it is characterized by a climate that tends to be cold despite its low latitude. The hot sun, however present, allows a complete ripening of the bunches that develop complexity while maintaining a good acidity. The predominantly clayey soils are distributed on a granite base with moderate drainage. These not very fertile soils give life to high quality grapes as the vines are forced to fight for their survival by digging into the soil in search of nutrients and thus produce small and concentrated grapes that define a structured and complex taste in the final wine.

Valle del Bío-Bío

Valle del Limarì

The Limari Valley is one of the most northerly regions of Chile. Its low latitude would not be compatible with viticulture but its overall dry and warm climate is balanced by the influence of the Limarí river which has opened a passage in the coastal hills and from the morning fog known as Camanchaca which cools and humidifies the vineyards. When the sun reaches its highest position, above the Andes, a hot and dry climate is re-established, almost desert, which characterizes the part of Chile closest to the equator. A similar climatic effect can also be found in the coastal wine regions of California, the most famous of which is undoubtedly Napa Valley. Precipitation is scarce and irrigation is carried out with drip systems. Rare limestone soils are found in this region, former sea beds raised by the tectonic activity of the Andean faults. Chardonnay is the protagonist vine of the Limari Valley from which wines characterized by a certain minerality are obtained, thanks to the relatively cold climate and the calcareous soil on which it grows. Syrah is also successful in this region, from which more savory wines are obtained in the fresh vineyards of the coastal areas or fuller and more fruity wines in the warmer areas of the hinterland. However, there is no shortage of productions starting from the most popular varieties in Chile, namely Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carmenère.

Valle del Maipo

Valle del Maipo is one of the most important wine-growing regions in Chile. Located just south of the capital Santiago, it is often described as the "Bordeaux of South America" for its famous rich and fruity Cabernet Sauvignon wines born from the travels of entrepreneurs Chilean miners of the 1800s in France. The Coastal Range isolates the Maipo Valley from the Pacific coast while the Andean reliefs separate it from the famous Argentine region of Mendoza. The region can be divided into three areas: the Alto Maipo, the Central Maipo and the Maipo Bajo. The Alto Maipo vineyards run along the eastern border with the Andes where they reach 400-760 meters above sea level. At these altitudes there are significant temperature variations between day and night: the hot day sun is followed by colder nights that slow down the ripening of the grapes, determining a greater balance between the sugary and acidic components of the fruits. The soils of colluvial origin, ie obtained from the gravity fall of the Andean rocks, are difficult for viticulture and this leads the vine plants to produce smaller, highly concentrated berries. Alto Maipo, which includes the sub-regions of Puente Alto and Pirque, is undoubtedly the most prestigious area. Central Maipo is characterized by a slightly warmer climate and more clayey and fertile soils that bring to light the less refined Cabernet Sauvignon and Carmenère wines. Maipo Bajo has more wineries than vineyards, which produce wine from grapes from all over the nation; local viticulture develops only around the river thanks to the mitigating influence of cold breezes. Since 1980 there has been a gradual technological advancement, with the introduction of drip irrigation but also of stainless steel tanks and oak barrels, which leads to controlled vinification and higher quality wines.

Valle del Rapel

The Rapel Valley is a large Chilean production region that guarantees about a quarter of all the nation's wine. It creates a wide range of wine styles, ranging from everyday wines to excellences of absolute prestige. Viticulture is mainly based on the cultivation of red grape varieties, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Carmenère, as well as the Malbec that has become famous in adjacent Mendoza, but there are also some productions of Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. Surrounded on both sides by mountain ranges - the Andes to the east and the Coast Range to the west - the Rapel Valley is largely protected from the cold currents of the Pacific Ocean. It owes its name to the Rapel river of the same name, born from the confluence of the Tinguiririca and Cachapoal rivers, which trace the boundaries of two very different sub-regions: the Cachapoal Valley to the north and the Colchagua Valley to the south. In the Cachapoal Valley the best vineyards are located on the east side, to which the Andes provide beneficial protection for viticulture. In the Colchagua Valley, on the other hand, the best vineyards extend to the west, where the cold influences of the ocean contribute to the creation of more elegant and balanced wines. While the Cachapoal Valley is better known locally, the Colchagua Valley has made itself known internationally. The Rapel Valley does not cover a specific administrative area but is part of the wider O'Higgins region which takes its name from one of the most famous leaders of the War of Independence from Spain in the 19th century.

Valle del Rodano

Located in the south-eastern part of France, the Rhone Valley is one of the most significant wine-growing areas, whose extension follows the course of the Rhone, from Lyon to the delta of the river that flows into the Mediterranean. The territory is very vast and is characterized by a remarkable variety of soils and mesoclimate. The north and south areas of the valley are clearly distinguished, given the absence of vineyards between them for about 40 kilometers. The northern part is smaller but more marked by quality, mainly characterized by the presence of granite hills and an overall continental climate. From it come great white wines made from Viognier, Marsanne and Roussanne grapes, but above all great red wines made from Syrah grapes. It includes highly reputed areas such as Hermitage and Côte-Rôtie. The southern part of the valley, on the other hand, is more prolific and less prestigious but contains the famous appellation Châteauneuf-du-pape.

Veneto

Veneto is a land of ancient winemaking traditions, which today boasts the primacy in Italy for the production of DOC wines. The wine production of the region qualifies not only through the largest and most varied panorama of vineyards and wines, from whites to reds, from sparkling wines to raisin wines, but also thanks to a strong vocation for quality. Much of Veneto, due to climatic and morphological characteristics, is an area where excellent grapes are grown; the grape growing areas are located both in the flat area, very rich in waterways, and on the hills, which have a mild climate and fertile soils.

Wachau

Small but important wine district in northern Austria, Wachau is one of the most famous and renowned regions in the world, known for its generous steel-aged Rieslings and full-bodied Grüner Veltliners with a distinctive pepper aroma. Wachau extends along the Danube River to the city of Krems-an-der-Donau which is also the center from which trade develops. Most of the vineyards are terraced, located on steep slopes overlooking the river, in a position favorably exposed to the sun's rays. The climate is divided into two zones: a colder one due to the presence of the Eastern Alps, to the west, and a warmer one near the Pannonian plain. Overall, the climate is continental, with hot summers and cold winters, although along the banks of the Danube the climate is milder. The soil is characterized by a good presence of sand, gravel and loess, to which is sometimes added a special type of gneiss called gföhler which gives a certain minerality to the wines of the region.

Washington

Washington state is located in the Pacific Northwest and is bordered to the south by Oregon. Despite its recent winemaking history, it is the second most productive state in the United States, after California. Almost all the wine produced comes from the easternmost part, characterized by a hot desert climate but there is some cultivation also in the colder and humid west part. Among the predominant red grape varieties we find Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah, while among the white grape varieties, Chardonnay and Riesling stand out in absolute terms. However the region produces quality wine from 70 different grape varieties. The Cascades Range defines the geography of the region by acting as a barrier to precipitation. Without irrigation water drawn from local waterways, Columbia, Walla Walla, Yakima and Snake, viticulture would not be possible. The rivers also mitigate summer and winter temperatures. The soils of alluvial origin are composed of gravel and sand which are suitable soils for viticulture but also a protection against phylloxera aphid: for this reason most of the region's vines are ungrafted. The latitude of Washington, 46 ° N, with days with even 17 hours of light, even more than California, and the favorable temperature variations allow to obtain vines capable of reaching full maturity while retaining a fundamental acidity.

Western Cape

Western Cape, or Western Cape, is home to some of South Africa's most famous wine regions: Stellenbosch and Paarl. Produces a wide variety of wines: fresh, full-bodied and bold reds from Shiraz and Pinotage grapes, elegant reds with high aging potential made from Cabernet Sauvignon or Bordeaux blends, Walker Bay wines made from grapes Pinot Noir and Chardonnay characterized by a style that recalls that of Burgundy and the Sauvignon Blancs that originate in the cold climates of Darling and Overberg. The vineyard areas extend for 300 km, from Cape Town to the mouth of the Olifants River in the north and 360 km up to Mossel Bay in the east The vineyards are generally never located more than 160 km from the coast: the climate can be cool and rainy, like at Cape Point and Walker Bay, but more often than not it is Mediterranean in nature. Inland, the influence of the Great Karoo Desert is felt. The Western Cape region is dotted with spectacular mountain ranges that form the Cape Fold belt, of extreme importance for viticulture as it helps to define optimal soils and meso climates for the vine. Granite, schist and sandstone are the predominant types of soil but there is no lack of clayey alluvial soils along the beds of the Breede, Berg and Olifants rivers. The surrounding oceans, Atlantic and Indian, play a very important role in the climate of the region, acting through the respective currents of Bengula and Agulhas. The first vineyards were planted in the 17th century by European colonizers: Stellenbosch owes its name to the colonizer Simon van der Stel. The vines devastated by phylloxera in the 19th century have been replaced by very productive varieties such as Cinsaut. After producing only brandy and fortified wines for a certain period, South Africa significantly resumed the production of still and sparkling wines after Apartheid.

Yunnan

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