The history of wine in Abruzzo has distant origins. From Ovidio to Polibio, in fact, there are many and authoritative testimonies of the existence of a wine tradition already in antiquity. Concentrated until the Renaissance in the province of L'Aquila, Abruzzo's viticulture experienced a phase of rapid transformation, especially in the period of unification. Since the mid-twentieth century, the production of wine in Abruzzo has become increasingly specialized and concentrated in areas with a high wine-growing vocation, which thanks to good ventilation and strong temperature variations between day and night, guarantee an ideal microclimate for production of high quality grapes.


Alsace is a wine region located in the north-eastern part of France, between the Vosges mountains and the German border, marked by the Rhine river. The presence of the Vosges mountain range contributes decisively to defining the climatic characteristics, protecting the area from the winds from the west and thinning rainy phenomena. Alsace differs from the rest of France by an ubiquitous German culture which dictates architectural styles and even influences the production of wine. It is therefore not surprising that mostly white wines are produced with vines such as Riesling or Gewürztraminer at the center. Here, Pinot Gris which in other French regions is relegated to assembly varieties, takes on a noble and important connotation. There is also a share of sweet wines that differ in sugar residue and of which the highest quality is highlighted through the mentions Vendanges Tardives and Selection de Grains Nobles.

Alto Adige

Wine and tradition are an inseparable combination in the South Tyrol region. In this area, viticulture has ancient origins and today's and very varied wine production is supported by a centuries-old tradition. This region, in fact, was renowned for its wines already in Roman times and still today wine production retains a primary role in the economy of the region, thanks above all to an environmental predisposition that allows you to put quality first of all, with a variety of vines difficult to find in other areas.


Andalusia is, excluding the islands, among the southernmost regions of Spain, which has become famous all over the world for the production of Sherry fortified wine. A very populous area, due to its proximity to the African continent it has been affected by an incessant succession of migrations that have led over time to the desire to sculpt a strong and unique cultural identity: bullfighting and flamenco originated precisely in Andalusia. The region also boasts a long wine history but, although table wines are also produced, the workhorse is certainly represented by fortified wines. It is no coincidence that the region hosts 5 sub-regions in which fortified wines or dessert wines with denomination of origin are mainly produced: Jerez, historic port and home of Sherry, Sanlucar de Barrameda known for its Manzanilla, Montilla-Moriles specialized in wines from non-fortified desserts made from Moscatel, Malaga and Condado de Huelva grapes.



Australia Meridionale

South Australia is one of the six states of the continent located, as the name suggests, in the southernmost part of the island. Considered the production engine of the Australian wine industry, it is responsible for about half of the continent's total production. But there are countless high quality wines, sometimes even collectible ones, that can be found, especially made from the grape variety symbol of the region: Shiraz. Red wines also thrive on Limestone Coast Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Grenache has also adapted well to the climate of South Australia: together with Shiraz and Mourvèdre it forms the classic GSM blend, which has become famous in the Rhone Valley. Although in smaller quantities there are several European varieties such as Tempranillo, Nebbiolo, Montepulciano and Petit Verdot. Among the white wines there are few but extraordinary excellences based on Riesling and Chardonnay from the Adelaide Hills or the Limestone Coast. Given the size of the wine growing region, the climate and topography vary greatly from one area to another, as does the altitude which can range from nearly sea level at Langhorne Creek up to 600 meters in parts of Piccadilly Valley on the hills of Adelaide. This does not allow to define precisely the characteristics of its terroir which can be very varied, even between plots of the same company. The south-eastern corner is cooler and less arid than the northern one, too hot for the cultivation of Vitis vinifera. The climate is moderated by the presence of two large gulfs. Between the eastern side of the Gulf of St. Vincent and the Murray River there is an approximately 80km wide belt within which are the famous vineyards of Barossa Valley, Eden Valley, Clare Valley and McLaren Vale.

Baja California


Basilicata's millennial vocation for viticulture and wine production, with a past that dates back to the ancient times of Enotri and Lucani. A long history that today intertwines tradition, culture and innovation, expressing all the potential of a terroir capable of giving great excellence. Basilicata is in fact characterized by a limited production from the quantitative point of view, but it offers very interesting ideas both as regards the local vines and for the quality of the wines produced. The 3 main areas of wine production in this region are the Vulture area, the Matera area and the upper Val d'Agri.


Located in the southwestern part of France, Bordeaux is one of the most famous and prestigious wine regions in the world. It became famous for its legendary red wines produced by the most important estates, châteaux, characterized for the most part by a dry, elegant and fairly full-bodied profile, with intense aromas, the result of the classic Bordeaux blend based on Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot is also a land of excellent quality white wines made from Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc grapes, both dry and moldy and botrytized, as in the case of the famous Sauternes or Barsac. The climate is mild not only due to the latitude of Bordeaux, exactly halfway between the Equator and the North Pole, but also and above all due to the proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and the presence of several rivers including the Dordogne, the Garonne and the Gironde estuary. Bordeaux, which could translate as "close to the waters", takes its name from the port city of the same name, the fulcrum of the region's commercial success, while internal trade was favored by the presence of the aforementioned waterways. The thick pine forest to the south, the Foret des Landes protects Bordeaux from the brackish winds of the Atlantic Ocean. The composition of the soil is also an important factor for Bordeaux viticulture. The gravelly soils of the region ensure excellent water drainage, and it is thanks to this characteristic that one of the largest wine-growing areas in Bordeaux has been named Graves. The first and most famous classification system adopted, still in force today, to recognize the value of Bordeaux wines was that of 1855, concerning only wines produced in the Médoc, which rewarded the quality of the producer more than the specific production area. , or terroir, with the term Cru Classé and a category that assigned a level of quality, from Premier Cru to Cinquième Cru. The 1855 classification also established quality levels for Sauternes and Barsac which were divided into Premier Cru Supérieur Classé, Premier Cru Classé and Deuxième Cru Classé. But other classification systems have been sanctioned: for the wines of the Grave to which wines of greater quality and prestige were assigned the mention Cru Classé; for the wines of Saint-Émilion, the only one to be reviewed every 10 years, which considered Premier Grand Cru Classé the first category divided further into groups A and B, of which group A constituted the superior quality division. Other famous areas of Bordeaux, including Canon-Fronsac, Entre-Duex-Mers, Fronsac and Pomerol, have never been regulated by any classification system. Generally the producers included in the categories of the various classification systems operate with very strict and quality production criteria, with the consequence of a considerable increase in prices. These classifications include only a small part of the wines produced in Bordeaux, leaving out hundreds of châteaux which still deserved attention. For this reason, in 1932 a special category was established for the châteaux of the Médoc excluded from the classification of 1855 and which took the name of Cru Bourgeois.


The Bourgogne AOC appellation is one of the most famous in the world. The Burgundy region is located in the central eastern part of France and covers a total area of over 27,000 hectares. The territory of the Appellation Bourgogne AOC includes 5 distinct areas: Chablis and Yonne, the Côte-de-Nuits, the Côte-de-Beaune, the Côte Chalonnaise and the Mâconnais. A very large area, which has very different climatic configurations. Suffice it to say that between the two extreme points of Chablis and Mâconnais there are about 200 kilometers of distance. The soils are generally of clay-limestone composition, which varies in percentages and characteristics from area to area. The grape varieties mainly grown in Burgundy are Chardonnay and Pinot Noir . However, there are also Aligoté, Gamay and to a lesser extent Pinot Gris , Sauvignon Blanc , Melon de Bourgogne , Sacy and César. The large Burgundy vineyard is characterized by a subdivision into very small plots, often less than one hectare, which are the result of a centuries-old work of zoning the territory, which has focused on enhancing the specific characteristics of each individual terroir. The whole of the tiles of this great Burgundy mosaic produces about 200 million bottles annually and even today the appellation Bourgogne AOC is synonymous throughout the world with tradition, quality and excellence. Burgundy red wine Burgundy red wine is today one of the most famous in the world thanks to the Pinot Noir of the Côte de Nuits, the northern area of the Côte d'Or, which includes Grand Cru we remember the caliber of Romanée-Conti (probably one of the most world famous and award-winning), Leroy and La Tâche. Usually the great Pinot Noirs are born from the assembly of small plots (grouped in the so-called Domaine) and are mostly aged in oak barriques: the aging in barrique allows to obtain those soft and velvety tannins and the extraordinary longevity that make them famous all over the world. The best crus give life to wines produced in very limited and collectible quantities. Pinot Noir also gives life to sparkling wines such as Crémant de Bourgogne, which is making a name for itself in recent times. But Burgundy also means "minor" denominations such as Côte Chalonnaise, with the Pinot Noir of Mercury, and Beaujolais, the southernmost wine area of Burgundy that stands out from the rest of the territory for climate and grape varieties and where Gamay is obtained from Beaujolais nouveau, the new red wine famous throughout the world for its straightforward and fruity character, is produced in Beaujolais. Burgundy white wine Burgundy white wine is famous all over the world thanks to Chablis , the admirable French wine based on Chardonnay that has become a reference model in other countries of the world. These wines are often characterized by mineral aromas, with pleasant hints of flint and with fresh aromas thanks to the refinement which takes place mostly in steel. Chablis has the following sub-denominations, which we list in order of importance, from the most common to the most sought after: Petit Chablis, Chablis, Chablis Premier Cru and Chablis Grand Cru. The other important area for Chardonnay production in Burgundy is the Côte d'Or, particularly in the southernmost area, called Côte de Beaune. Here some of the best white wines in the world are produced and here Chardonnay gives life to rich, full wines, with a good softness on the palate and unmistakable aromas. Finally, not everyone knows that in the Mâconnais region, famous for its Pouilly-Fuissé, there is a small village called Chardonnay, which according to some is the place of origin of this grape. Among the other white wines of Burgundy we can mention those based on Aligoté (famous are those of the village of Bouzeron) and those with Pinot Grigio and Sauvignon. What characteristics does Burgundy wine have? Burgundy wine is able to satisfy all palates thanks to its characteristics. This region in fact offers Chardonnay with intense and generous aromas, fresher in the case of Chablis and softer and more structured in the case of the wines of the Côte de Beaune, and red wines with a complex and long-lived Pinot Noir that acts as a counterpoint to the lively and fruity Beaujolais nouveau. What are the best pairings for a Burgundy white wine? A Burgundy white wine is ideal with many combinations, from shellfish to egg-based dishes, from risotto to truffle dishes, passing first enriched with béchamel and second courses based on white meat and noble poultry. What are the best producers of Burgundy Some of the best producers in Burgundy are Romanée-Conti , Leroy and La Tâche.


Located on the eastern border of Austria, Burgenland is a region renowned for some very high quality white wines which is also rediscovering a thriving production of red wines made from Blaufränkisch and Zweigelt grapes which can benefit from sunny and continental summers. Sweet botrytised wines are a specialty of the region, especially those produced in the terroir that develops around Lake Neusiedl. The region extends over a small strip of land that stretches from the Danube River to Styria. To the west it meets the Alps, to the east it borders on Hungary with which it shares its topographical configuration, so much so that Sopron could be called its extension. It houses four DAC denominations: Neusiedlersee, Leithaberg, Mittelburgenland and Eisenberg. Wines that do not meet the requirements to bear these denominations may indicate the broader Burgenland denomination on the label.


The first documents on viticulture in the region date back to around the year 1000, but Calabria was known since the ancient Greeks with the name of Enotria, land of wine, and its wines were offered to the athletes of the Olympics as a prize. Calabria has unique conditions for viticulture, which occupies about 10,000 hectares of its territory, and which is practiced mostly in the hills (50%) or in the mountains (42%), despite this region being surrounded by two seas. The history of viticulture in Calabria was abruptly interrupted due to phylloxera and only recovered after the war, with the reconstruction of the Calabrian viticultural heritage. The real rebirth of the wine culture in this region, however, is much more recent, thanks to the tenacity of Calabrian winemakers who have been able to bring out and make known the best of this region, with a total of 10 DOC and 10 IGT. Discover the authenticity of Calabrian red wines Calabrian red wine represents 80% of all production: the most cultivated vines in Calabria are in fact black and native grapes. The most famous are Gaglioppo, undisputed protagonist of the red Cirò Doc and also of the Rosato Cirò Doc, the Nerello Mascalese, the Nerello Cappuccio and the Greco Nero. Of considerable interest, even if with minor productions, is the Magliocco Canino, widespread in the Terre of Cosenza DOC. In general, all the reds of this region share an intense color, a powerful structure and fruity aromas of blackberry, red fruit in general and spices. They are wines that maintain a typicality and authenticity that divide them from the reds obtained from international vines, and make this wine region unique in its kind. Calabrian white wine: small productions but of quality White grape varieties represent only 20% of all production and the most cultivated are Greco Bianco , Trebbiano Toscano, Montonico and Guernaccia. The best areas in which white wines are obtained in Calabria are the areas around Cosenza, where the intense temperature variations in the vineyards that reach 800 meters in altitude, give elegant and fragrant white wines. The Costa dei Gelsomini, on the other hand, is the cradle par excellence of the historian Greco di Bianco, who finds the ideal conditions for its development and gives life to exciting whites and a passito wine that will delight fans. What is the best Calabrian wine? Calabria has many interesting producers, including Librandi, Ceraudo and Luigi Viola, who received the Tre Bicchieri Gambero Rosso respectively for the San Felice Cirò Riserva, the Moscato Passito 2018 and the Grisara Pecorello 2018. Great results for this region also in the Vitae guide of the AIS, with wines awarded with the prestigious 4 vines such as Benvenuto Orange by Cantine Benvenuto and Magliocco 2019 by Lento, as well as another great wine from Librandi, Terre Lontane. What are the most famous names of Calabrian wines? Calabrian wines, as happens in other areas, have the names of the vines such as Gaglioppo or the names relating to the designation of origin where they are born, such as Cirò, Cosenza etc. Among the labels there is no shortage of fancy names such as Madre Goccia, Solenero and Bacche Rosa What are the Calabrian DOCG wines? In Calabria there are no Calabrian DOCG red wines: in fact in this region there are no controlled and guaranteed denomination wines but on the other hand there are 10 different DOCs and even 10 IGTs.


California is the largest and most important wine growing region in the United States. It extends for two thirds of the west coast covering 10 degrees of latitude, with a topography at least as complex as its climate which allows the producers of the region a great deal of choice. California wines have only risen to international prominence in the last few decades but the nation's wine history begins more than 200 years ago. The European vine plants were introduced by the colonizers and missionaries who cultivated the Mission grape variety, today not very widespread but essential for the viticulture of Central and South America. In the first half of the twentieth century, the wine industry was severely hampered by wars, prohibition and the crisis known as the Great Depression, but since 1970 the producers gave birth to a lively and thriving recovery and today California is home to some of the largest companies around the world as well as small wineries able to fetch astronomical prices for their cult wines. California currently produces 90% of American wine, both red and white and sparkling wines. Among the main red grape varieties we find Cabernet Sauvignon, Pinot Noir, Merlot, Syrah and Zinfandel, while the white grape varieties include Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. The robust American rootstocks are known worldwide for their resistance to the fearsome phylloxera aphid. Various soils and climates arise from a plurality of factors such as altitude, latitude and proximity to the cold waters of the Pacific Ocean. In summer, the cold coastal waters help to create a fog bank that can also move towards the hinterland, cooling the surrounding area. The mountainous areas of the region limit the influence of the maritime climate. Mainly two climatic areas are established: the colder one near the coast, suitable for the cultivation of Pinot Noir and Chardonnay vines, and the one in the hinterland where the climate is warmer and more suitable for the cultivation of Cabernet Sauvignon and Zinfandel guaranteeing excellent results. in both contexts.


Campania wine has an ancient winemaking tradition, one of the first territories in the world to have seen the settlement, cultivation, study of the vine and the production of wine. The spread of the vine, in fact, dates back to pre-Roman times, thanks above all to a particularly favorable climate and the particular nature of the soil, and in Roman times one of the most valuable wines was Falerno. This region has a rich heritage of high quality grapes, which give life to a wide variety of wines, both white and red, including many excellences, well known and appreciated not only in Italy, but also abroad, with a total of 4 DOCG wines, 15 DOC wines and 10 IGT wines divided into 5 macro-zones: the Casertano, the Naples area and the splendid islands of Capri and Ischia, Irpinia, Benevento. Everywhere in the region the composition of the soils is linked to the eruptions of Vesuvius, whose volcanic activity has dispersed considerable quantities of ashes even over long distances, enriching the earth with mineral components. Red wine from Campania The most popular red wine from Campania is Aglianico , which is joined by Piedirosso (called Per'e Palummo, that is Piede di Colombo), Sciascinoso, Pallagrello nero and Casavecchia, the latter forgotten for years and recently rediscovered with excellent results and extremely elegant and richly colored wines. The two DOCG red wines from Campania, Taurasi and Aglianico del Taburno both see the Aglianico grape as the protagonist. Taurasi, which ages for at least three years in cask, is very structured and suitable for long aging, such that its longevity can be compared to that of the great Italian reds such as Brunello or Barolo . Aglianico is also part of the vines of the Campi Flegrei appellation, where Per 'e Palummo (pigeon's foot) is also widespread, which owes its name to the gnarled red bases of the vine stocks, similar to the red feet of a pigeon and gives juicy, intense and pleasantly fruity wines. Both of these vines are also widespread in the Costa d'Amalfi appellation and in the Falerno del Massico DOC and Irpinia DOC appellations. Not to forget other minor red vines such as Casavecchia, black Pallagrello and Sciascinoso. White wine from Campania The oldest white wine from Campania is Falerno del Massico, which was produced from the Aminea Gemina vine, now known as Greco , and was known and appreciated throughout ancient Rome. Today the Greco remains one of the most important vines of Campania and gives life, among others, to a white DOCG perfect for fish dishes and fresh cheeses. The other great white from Campania is Fiano di Avellino , protagonist in the DOCG wine of the same name, which is characterized by flavor and freshness and was one of the favorite wines of Frederick II of Swabia. Less prestigious but highly appreciated throughout Italy is Falanghina, very interesting in the Campi Flegrei area and which also gives excellent results as a classic method sparkling wine and whose name derives from the "phalanx" the poles that, since ancient times, were used to support the screws. Other minor vines are Coda di Volpe, which is part of the legendary Lacryma Christi appellation, Palagrello and Asprinio. Finally, do not forget the whites born and raised on the island of Ischia such as Forastera and Biancolella di Ischia which are born from heroic viticulture, from vineyards clinging to the earth and overlooking some of the most beautiful views in the world. How many Campania DOCG wines are there? There are four DOCG wines from Campania, two whites and two reds. Which are the main producers of fine wines from Campania? There are many producers of fine wines from Campania, among the most famous we certainly find Feudi di San Gregorio, Mastroberardino, Marisa Cuomo and Quintodecimo. Why do we talk about volcanic wines in Campania? Volcanic wines in Campania are born on the slopes of Vesuvius and are enriched with very pleasant mineral notes: an excellent example is the Falanghina dei Campi Flegrei.


Canelones is an Uruguayan administrative region, located just north of the capital Montevideo, which is home to most of the nation's vineyards. Located to the south, inland from the Atlantic coast, it extends westwards until it reaches the Rio de la Plata estuary. The epicenter of the wine industry revolves around the cities of Juanico and Progreso, in the southwest of the region. The main grape variety is definitely Tannat, which has a greater number of plants than anywhere else in the world. Syrah, Cabernet Franc and Merlot are also widespread among the red grape varieties, while the white grape varieties include Pinot Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay. The territory is flat or has low altitudes. Given its latitude, 33-34 ° S, it has a mild climate: the summer heat peaks are softened by the cold currents coming from the Atlantic Ocean. The Canelones winemakers believe that the pedo-climatic conditions of the region significantly resemble those of the Bordeaux vineyards.

Castiglia e León


Central Otago


Champagne is the most famous sparkling wine in the world and the name of the wine region it comes from. The excellence of the productions, its exclusive character and the allure it has acquired over time make it an absolute model for all bubbles. Located at a north latitude of 49 °, the Champagne region lies on the northern edge of the vine growing areas, with average temperatures below those of any other French wine region. In this type of climate, the grapes do not reach the optimal ripeness for a traditional vinification but give their best following the second fermentation in the bottle characteristic of the Champenoise sparkling method, known in Italy as the Classic Method. The varieties that compose it are generally Pinot Noir, Pinot Meunier and Chardonnay but the varieties Pinot Bianco, Pinot Grigio, Petit Meslier and Arbane are also allowed in small quantities. The choice of the main grape varieties to be used for the production of champagne depend solely on their ability to adapt to this terroir and on the important results they are able to guarantee, among the few varieties able to settle in such a cold and humid climate. Each of them makes its own contribution in terms of quality and characteristics: the Pinot Nero structure and aromas of black fruits, the Pinot Meunier acidity and fruit, the Chardonnay elegance and finesse, but also a perfect creaminess. Champagnes differ in color, degree of sweetness, grape variety or in the fact that they are produced from a single vintage, in the case of vintage, or from several vintages, for champagne sans année. We can speak of Champagne Blanc de Noirs if obtained only from black berried grapes, Blanc de Blancs if only from white berried grapes. Champagne Rosé owes its rosé color from the blend of red wine and white wine that make up its cuvée. The Grand Cru and Premier Cru Champagnes are those produced in the best and most prestigious vineyards of the region. However, the name of the maison, producer, is what determines the greater or lesser reputation. The particular soil also contributes to determining the exclusivity of these bubbles, with a chalky structure with a much finer grain than the calcareous soils of other French wine regions and porous. This particular conformation makes the minerals more easily absorbed by the roots and provides excellent drainage. This permeability allows access to water resources far below, favoring strong root development and ensuring a continuous water supply. Even within this relatively coherent and constant terroir, there are variations in terroir and climate that make the different areas more suited to the needs of the three main grape varieties. La Cote des Blancs, aptly named Cote des Blancs - and in particular the Cote de Sezanne - is where the best Chardonnay sites are found, while the Montagne de Reims and Vallee de la Marne are ideal for Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier.

Dealu Mare


Emilia Romagna

The territory of Emilia Romagna is divided in two by the Via Emilia, which crosses it in all its length: on one side the Apennines, with its soft reliefs particularly suited to viticulture, on the other the plain, which descends towards the Po to the Adriatic coast. Along the Via Emilia there are four production areas: the Colli di Piacenza and Parma, where Bonarda and Barbera prevail; the lands of Lambrusco, extended from the hills to the banks of the Po between Reggio Emilia and Modena; the Colli Bolognesi and the lower Rhine valley, where traditional white wines are produced; finally Romagna, with Sangiovese, Albana and Trebbiano to dominate the scene.

Friuli Venezia Giulia

Friulian wine has been able to find a wide audience of consumers in Italy and in the world, remaining faithful to its tradition and to its native vineyards. Friuli Venezia Giulia is a region with great viticultural results thanks to the peculiar physical and geographical features , with the alternation of lands overlooking the Venetian lagoon, soft hills and imposing reliefs, and the constant commitment of small and large producers who have been able to combine a ancient tradition to the most modern technologies. Among the main denominations of the region we remember Collio DOC , Friuli Colli Orientali , Friuli Grave DOC and Friuli Isonzo DOC, each with its distinct peculiarities. Friulian Red Wine There are examples of excellent Friulian red wine, although the region is much more famous for white wine. Probably the most famous denomination for the reds is Friuli Grave DOC, which includes wines produced in a large territory of Friuli, in the province of Udine and Pordenone, mainly characterized by soils of alluvial origin, draining and rich in pebbles and stones, which proved to be very suitable for the cultivation of the vine, in particular for the red grape varieties . Producers such as Vistorta, Fantinel , Pighin come from this area. There is no shortage of reds even in the DOC Collio, from Cabernet Franc , Cabernet Sauvignon , Merlot , Pinot Nero grapes . Among the native red grape varieties, the most famous is undoubtedly Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso . Friulian white wine The Friulian white wine is known all over the world and one of the most interesting denominations is undoubtedly the Collio Doc , which includes the hilly territories in the province of Gorizia. Collio Doc white wines, among the most famous and appreciated in Italy and in the world, are produced with: Chardonnay , Istrian Malvasia, Pinot Bianco, Picolit, Pinot Grigio, Sauvignon , Friulano, and Ribolla Gialla . From this region come the wines of great wineries such as Jermann , Gravner, Schiopetto , Villa Russiz , Livon , Cormons . Even the Friuli Colli Orientali DOC denomination identifies one of the most suitable Italian areas for the production of quality white wines. Friuli Colli Orientali DOC includes the territory of the municipalities of Attimis, Buttrio, the eastern part of Cividale, Corno di Rosazzo, Faedis, Manzano, Nimis, Povoletto, Premariacco, Prepotto, S. Giovanni al Natisone, S. Pietro al Natisone, Tarcento and Torreano in the province of Udine. It also includes the sub-areas of Cialla, Ribolla Gialla di Rosazzo, Pignolo di Rosazzo, Schioppettino di Prepotto and Refosco di Faedis. This is the land of Livio Felluga , Bastianich , The vineyards of Zamò and Zorzettig . Friuli Isonzo , on the other hand, is located in the eastern area of the region, south of Collio, in the alluvial plain along the Isonzo river, from which it takes its name. In addition to the exceptional climate, which alternates warm sea breezes and fresh winds from the mountains, the soils rich in chalk and clay on the left bank and the white gravel on the right bank contribute to creating optimal conditions for the production of quality wines. In particular, the wines obtained from Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay have brought the Isonzo to the fore , thanks also to the work of wineries such as Vie di Romans . What are the best combinations for Friulian wine? Friulian wine, in its various types, is perfect for any combination. The soft and delicate whites of the Isonzo are ideal to combine with simple vegetable dishes, risottos and fish and cheese appetizers, the structured whites of the Collio are more suitable for more complex dishes or with sauces, grilled fish or soups and reds, with character and great typicality, are ideal with the tastiest meat dishes of the Italian tradition. What are the main characteristics of white Friulian wine? The Friulian white wine stands out for its elegance and structure, especially as regards wines from international grapes such as Chardonnay and Sauvignon. Among the whites born from native grapes we cannot fail to mention the Ribolla, defined as the “white for those who love reds thanks to its structure”, and the Tocai, an excellent white perfect for fish. What is the most famous Friulian red wine? The most famous and representative red wine is certainly the one obtained from Refosco dal Peduncolo rosso, a vine that owes its name to the fact that the bunches have red stems.






Isola di Negros

Isole Baleari

Isole Vergini


Small and prestigious wine district located 55 kilometers north-east of Vienna which extends around the town of Langenlois. Kamptal is split in two by the Kamp River which flows south before flowing into the Danube. Steep and sunny terraced vineyards overlook the river, feeling the warm climatic influence of the Pannonian plain to the east and the cool climate of the Waldviertel forests to the west. The considerable temperature range between day and night allows the grapes to ripen during the day and to retain good acidity during the night. Kamptal produces some of the best white wines in the world. Among these stands out the Riesling with the characteristic scent of flint, which comes from soils with a thin layer of earth that forces the plants to dig deep into the ground to obtain nutrients and stability, producing stronger plants with lower yields with implications absolutely positive on the quality of the grapes. Then we find the rich and spicy Grüner Veltliner which prefers deeper soils, mostly clayey and with a good presence of loess, which contribute to giving greater concentration to the wines. The most renowned areas include Heiligenstein, Gaisberg, Steinmassl and Lamm, among the 18 sites classified as Erste Lage, grand cru. Kamptal is also home to some high-quality reds made from Zweigelt grapes.





The viticulture in Lazio is found mainly in the hilly areas, with reference to two main production areas: the Castelli Romani, consisting of the reliefs that rise south-east of Rome, and the Viterbo area, also known by the ancient term of Tucsia . A common feature of the two areas is the strongly volcanic terrain. Much of the region's production is represented by white wines, generally still and characterized by good fleshiness and pleasantly fruity hints. Immediate and straightforward wines, which perfectly match the local gastronomic tradition.


Liguria is one of the smallest wine regions in Italy. Its shape, close between the Alps, the Apennines and the sea, makes viticulture extremely difficult; at the same time, the mild climate that characterizes the hilly area of the immediate hinterland represents an extremely favorable condition for the cultivation of the vine. For this reason, Liguria boasts a good tradition in the wine sector, positively influenced also by the presence of the sea which, in addition to giving a particular character to the wines, has always favored their marketing and diffusion.


The Loire Valley is a key region for French enology. Developed around the course of the Loire River, it extends from the hills of Auvergne to the coastal plains near Nantes. Important both in terms of quantity and quality, it makes diversity its absolute strength: in the Loire Valley both light and vibrant Muscadet and sparkling versions of Vouvray are produced, passing through the sweet and honeyed Bonnezeaux to finish with white wines that made famous this wine region, those of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé. The white berried varieties are decidedly more widespread, with a good presence of Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Chenin and Melon de Bourgogne. However, the production of red wines such as the light and fruity Gamay or the spicy and tannic Bourgueil is also gaining momentum. An important role is played by the Cabernet Franc grape which is part of the composition of the Chinon Rouge and Saumur wines among others. The climate varies from continental, north of the Loire, to maritime as you get closer to the Atlantic coast, while the soils vary from the hard granite of the Côtes du Forez, to the soft and brittle tuff of Anjou, passing through soils characterized by flint and limestone around Sancerre and Pouilly sur Loire. Such diversity made it necessary to divide the Loire Valley into smaller areas. The main ones are Pays Nantais known for Muscadet wines, Anjou for its Chenin Blanc, Tourraine for its reds made from Cabernet Franc grapes, but above all the Upper Loire, home of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fumé wines made from Sauvignon Blanc grapes. .


Limited production in terms of quantity, but a great variety of territories and wines. Here is what characterizes the wine-growing reality of Lombardy, which presents very different productions thanks to a remarkable heterogeneity of the environments, from the mountains to the hills, from the plains to the lakes. From the great reds of the Valtellina to the bubbles of Franciacorta and Oltrepò, Lombardy is home to denominations of national fame and small lesser known denominations. National and international vines coexist in this region, creating wine products more or less tied to the territory, but always united by a great quality.


An emerging region located south of Uruguay, Maldonado represents a promise for the nation's enological future. Located at the same latitudes as other major wine producing countries, such as Argentina, Chile, Australia and South Africa, it is characterized by a warm maritime climate mitigated by the cool breezes coming from the Atlantic Ocean, but also by higher altitudes. and a greater geographical variety than the rest of the nation. The soils are poor and guarantee good drainage, made up of a mixture of granite, rock and sand. The vineyards, located in the hills of the hinterland, host both red grape varieties, the main ones being Tannat, Merlot, Cabernet and Malbec, and white grape varieties, such as Sauvignon Blanc, Chardonnay, Sémillon, Riesling and Albariño.


Viticulture in the Marche begins with the arrival of the Syracusan Greeks and establishes itself with the Romans, thanks to whom the fame of the Piceno wine spread throughout the empire. Always a land of excellence, this region ranks among the Italian areas with the highest wine-growing vocation, which is expressed through a plurality of wine expressions. The influence of the Adriatic Sea on which the Marche overlook and the natural barriers created by the mountains, create in this territory rare and particular microclimates that give life to typical wines, with unmistakable aromas, the production of which is mostly entrusted to small cellars, where making wine is a tradition handed down from generation to generation.




Mendoza is by far the largest wine region in Argentina, located in the west on a high-altitude plateau on the edge of the Andes. The vineyards are mainly concentrated in the northern part of the region and cover 70% of Argentina's wine production. The Malbec grape, imported by the French agronomist Miguel Aimé Pouget, has found full citizenship in this part of the New World, so much so that the red wines obtained from this grape variety, very concentrated and intense, have become famous all over the world: Luján de Cuyo, the Maipu Valley and the Uco Valley are home to some of the biggest names in Argentine wine. The wine history of the region dates back to the colonial era, with the first vines planted by the priests of the Jesuit order in the mid-16th century. The production formerly intended for internal use, experienced a flourishing expansion in 1885 with the construction of a railway line that connected Mendoza to the capital Buenos Aires, favoring the transport and marketing of wine outside the region. The vineyards located at important altitudes, generally between 800 and 1,200 meters above sea level, can benefit from a more moderate climate than the very hot and dry one that can be found at low altitudes. Furthermore, the considerable excursion between day and night, due to the intervention of the cold westerly winds, causes a slowdown in ripening which brings richer and more mature flavors to the grapes. The always hot and dry harvest periods allow winegrowers to choose the most appropriate time for harvesting based solely on the stage of maturation reached and to decide with greater freedom the production styles they intend to adopt for their wines. The dry and not very fertile soil is perfect for the cultivation of the vine, forced to develop very deep roots to reach the water and nourishment they need, producing small and concentrated berries that will give life to structured, mineral and tannin wines I decided. In addition to Malbec, in Mendoza there is also space for the cultivation of Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Chardonnay, Torrontés and Sauvignon Blanc grapes, but the region's journey as a producer of quality sparkling wines has also recently begun. The natural beauty of the area makes it a popular wine tourism destination.


Molise is a small region with an absolutely unique territorial morphology. Viticulture, practiced both in the hills and in mountainous areas, has ancient origins that date back to the Samnites, even if it was the Romans who later extended the cultivation of the vine to larger territories. Pristine landscapes, great potential and a tradition handed down from father to son: these are the three strengths of Molise wine production, which over time has managed to find its rightful place in the national wine scene, managing to fully express its identity and typicality .





Paesi Baschi



Patagonia is the southernmost wine region of South America: a remote and desert area which, contrary to all expectations, has proven itself, also thanks to its cool and dry climate, particularly suitable for the production of elegant red wines from Pinot Noir and Malbec grapes . It is a very large area, twice the size of California, which extends for 300 kilometers along the Rio Negro, Neuquén, Anelo and Choele rivers. The alternation of hot days and cold nights slow down the maturation and prolong it, leading to the development of the rich variety of grapes. Patagonia's reputation is due to its subregion Rio Negro and the emerging Neuquén, from which more European-style wines originate. If it is true that Malbec plays a central role in the wine production of Patagonia, the absolute primacy belongs to Pinot Noir.


Piedmontese wine represents one of the cornerstones of Italian enology, grouping some of the most prestigious denominations especially in the field of red wines such as Barolo and Barbaresco . A land of winemaking tradition since ancient times, Piedmont produces great wines on its hills and on the Alpine and Pre-Alpine belts. In these places, which differ thanks to the different geographical and climatic characteristics that characterize them, manual labor is predominant and low yields per hectare are pursued, to enhance the quality of the wines that come to life here. From the refined and sumptuous reds to the round and fragrant whites, to the inviting and pleasant dessert wines, the varied wine heritage of this region makes it an area of extraordinary excellence, appreciated both nationally and internationally. Piedmontese red wine The Piedmontese red wine is mainly obtained from native varieties, which see Nebbiolo , father of the great reds such as Barolo and Barbaresco, but also present in less known but equally interesting reds such as Gattinara , Ghemme , Carema and Fara, as well as that of alternative and original bubbles. Among the reds we certainly cannot forget the Barbera , which finds full-bodied and structured red wines in the Alba area (it is said that "baroleggia"), in Asti wines of great longevity and in the Monferrato sparkling and pleasant reds, famous thanks to "La Monella "By Braida. Other very interesting and highly drinkable reds are Grignolino (the “anarchic” wine according to Veronelli), Dolcetto (with territorial variations, from Ovada to Alba passing through Dogliani) and Freisa . Finally, the Ruché del Monferrato , from a native grape saved from extinction, and the rare Verduno Pelaverga are worth trying. Also of historical importance is a last grape, Brachetto , which has always given rise to the sweet and irresistible Brachetto d'Acqui . Piedmontese white wine If the most famous Piedmontese white wine is undoubtedly Gavi , obtained from Cortese grapes, there are other equally interesting and particular wines. For example, we cannot fail to mention the Timorasso from the Tortona hills, also suitable for long aging, or the Roero Arneis , the only white in the Langa area. Also interesting are Moscato and Erbaluce di Caluso which give life to both sweet wines and dry white wines as well as sparkling wines. In Piedmont, however, there are also international white grape varieties, such as Chardonnay , used in the precious classic Alta Langa DOCG method, and Riesling , which is able to give wines of great longevity. What is the finest Piedmontese red wine? The finest Piedmontese red wine is undoubtedly Barolo, also known as the king of wines and the wine of kings. How many Piedmont DOC wines are there? Piedmont has 41 DOC wines with controlled designations of origin and 18 DOCG wines. How do you pair a robust Piedmontese red wine? The perfect pairing with a robust Piedmontese red wine is undoubtedly the one with meats, both in the form of stew and roast, and as a ragù sauce with pasta or ravioli.


Provence occupies the southeastern corner of France and is a wine region known above all for the quality of its rosé wines. It is characterized by a decidedly mild Mediterranean climate which contributes to creating ideal conditions for viticulture in this area. With the passing of the years and the modernization found in the oenological field, the popular grapes Greanche, Syrah and Cabernet Sauvignon have taken the place of the traditional Carignan, Barbaroux and Calitor. However, in recent years, the native grapes of Mourvèdre, Tibouron and Rolle, corresponding to Vermentino, have also been enjoying success. The rather vast territory includes few denominations in proportion: the largest is the Côtes de Provence but the Côteaux d'Aix-en-Provence, Ventoux and Luberon are also noteworthy. In Provence you can also find the intensely fragrant red wines of Bandol or the full-bodied whites of Cassis, however its name remains inextricably linked to its internationally renowned rosé wines.

Puente Alto

Puente Alto is located within the Maipo Valley, south of Santiago. Cabernet Sauvignon is the predominant variety of the region and the wines it produces are held in high esteem, but wines made from Syrah, Carménère and Chardonnay grapes are also produced. First recognized Chilean terroir, crossed by the Maipo River on its way from the Andes to the Pacific Ocean, it is located at an altitude of about 700 meters above sea level. This contributes, together with the presence of a bridge that crosses the Maipo river, to give the name of "high bridge". The terroir is strongly influenced by the Andes, in fact the soil of the region, considered the strong point of Puente Alto, is made up of Andean rocks eroded by the river. Alluvial in nature, it limits the vigor of the vine which produces small and concentrated berries from which very structured and mineral wines are produced, with a good tannic presence. In addition, the Andes also influence the climate of the region: the vineyards are protected from intense sunlight in the morning while the nights are very cool thanks to the intervention of the alpine winds. The altitude exacerbates this temperature range by slowing the ripening of the grapes overnight which leads to a general balance of flavor and freshness in the wines of Puente Alto. The vine was grown in this region in 1800 with the planting of the pioneering Cousiño Macul vineyard, but it owes its fame to names such as Almaviva and Don Melchor but above all to Viñedo Chadwick who, thanks to a comparison of this wine with great names of French wine including Château Lafite, Château Latour and Château Margaux, once and for all sanctioned its value and prestige.


Puglia is a land of sea and sun and the Apulian wine contains all its warmth. The vine has been cultivated in Puglia since ancient times, so much so that Pliny the Elder defined Manduria as viticulosa, that is, "full of vines". If in the past wine was used as a “blending” wine to reinforce other wines, today Apulian wines are widespread and appreciated all over the world. Production is abundant and is close to 5000000 hectoliters. The native vines are the protagonists, both in the whites with Fiano and Bombino Bianco, and in the reds with Primitivo , Negroamaro and Nero di Troia, which are sometimes part of the more famous and larger denominations, other times smaller and unknown. Apulian red wine: fruit in its pure state Apulian red wines are usually structured and juicy, with a strong fruity character. The most famous vines are undoubtedly the Negroamaro (which gives soft and velvety reds, with a slightly bitter background) and the Primitivo, famous above all for the Primitivo di Manduria, which instead gives structured wines with a good alcoholic content and which seems a relative of Californian Zinfandel. Not to forget the Uva di Troia and the black Malvasia , also protagonist of the famous rosé wines of Salento and of a small and unknown denomination: the Cacc'e Mitte di Lucera. Also noteworthy are the sweet wines from red berried grapes, such as Primitivo liqueur and Salice Salentino Aleatico Passito, which are able to highlight the full potential of Apulian wines. Apulian white wine: all the goodness of the earth Puglia is known for its red wines but there are also fine Apulian white wines, from the Locorotondo to the white Gravina passing through the Castel del Monte appellation. In this region there are both native vines, such as Bombino Bianco, Malvasia Bianca and Verdeca, and international vines, such as Chardonnay , which has found a happy island in Salento and is today one of the most widespread in the region. Apulian white wines are fresh and drinkable and for this reason they are easy to pair. Furthermore, fabulous dessert wines are also born from white berried grapes, such as Moscato di Trani, which is present both as a sweet wine and as a passito wine. What are the finest Apulian wines? The most prestigious and famous Apulian wines are known all over the world and usually have large companies behind them: among the many, we cannot fail to mention the historic Five Roses by Leone De Castris (progenitor of the Salento rosé wines), the wines of the Tormaresca estate and above all the Primitivo di Gianfranco Fino, one of the most awarded and famous Apulian wines among wine lovers. When were Apulian rosé wines born? Apulian rosé wines are born with Leone De Castris' Five Roses: at the end of the last world war, the American general Charles Poletti, commissioner for the supplies of the allied forces, asked for a large supply of rosé wine from the Leone De Castris winery. This is how a 100% Italian wine was born, but with a strictly American name: Five Roses (from the Cinque Vie district, not far from the Negroamaro vineyards that give life to this wine). A story full of successes, which today sees in this kind of rosé wines a must of the summer, in Italy and beyond. What are the Apulian DOCG wines? Apulian DOCG wines include three red wines, Castel Del Monte Bombino Nero DOCG, Castel del Monte Nero di Troia DOCG and Castel del Monte Rosso Riserva DOCG, as well as of course a sweet wine, the sweet natural Primitivo di Manduria DOCG. However, there are numerous DOC and IGT wines, scattered throughout the region from the Gargano to the extreme tip of Salento.





Located in the northernmost part of Argentina, the Salta region includes extreme vineyards both in latitude, close to that of the Equator, and in altitude, reaching up to 3,000 meters above sea level. The high temperatures typical of these geographical coordinates meet the colder ones due to the considerable height, generating an ideal climate for quality viticulture. The mountain ranges hinder the passage of heavy rain clouds resulting in clear skies and low rainfall, but also provide the necessary irrigation through melt water from the snow-capped peaks. Malbec, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Tannat are the most important red berried varieties of the region, while Chardonnay and Torrontés stand out among the white berried varieties. Salta's main wine areas are Cafayate and the Molinos vineyards. Cafayate, in particular, is rapidly gaining an international reputation for the high quality of the wines produced there, as well as for the peculiarities of its terroir.

San Juan

San Juan is the second most productive region of Argentina after Mendoza. Its territory is entirely included among the hills that precede the Andes mountain range. It is a semi-desert region, with a continental and very dry climate, where viticulture can only take place due to the presence of the San Juan and Jachal rivers and efficient irrigation systems, but also from the average high altitude at which the vineyards are located which mitigates local temperatures. Here the vines of European origin, such as Bonarda, Syrah, Cabernet, Malbec and Merlot for the red wines and Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Torrontés and Viognier for the whites, have found a thriving place for their vegetative growth. Within San Juan, three sub-regions can be distinguished, one more interesting than the other. The Pedernal Valley, known for the production of high quality wines, takes its name from the Spanish term used to indicate the flints of which its soils are rich, which limit the yield and growth of plants leading to the production of wines with more concentrated aromas and tannins. The Tullum Valley, on the other hand, is recognized for the production of dense and peppery Syrah rich in character and for its quality whites. Finally, the Valle di Zonda has as its characterizing element the strong wind of the same name Zonda which contributes both positively and negatively to viticulture: it protects from the risk of disease but at the same time hinders the growth of younger plants. The porous and rocky soils of this territory require the development of deep roots in order to reach the water necessary for their development, with the effect of producing grapes with a good concentration of sugars and tannins which will result in complex wines and structured.



Sardinian wine is produced in one of the most interesting areas of Italy from a wine-making point of view, not only for the territory, divided between the Mediterranean climate of the coasts and the temperate one of the interior, but above all for the massive presence of native vines. Unique, to the point of being one of the few areas in the world where there are still ungrafted vines, this region is full of contrasts, with the Carignano del sulcis vineyards that have their roots in the sand of the coast and only one DOCG in the whole region. Small and large producers have made Sardinian wines known all over the world, with authentic jewels acclaimed by audiences and critics such as Turriga by Argiolas and Terre Brune by Santadi. Sardinian white wines Vermentino is certainly the most famous Sardinian white wine, although it is necessary to distinguish between Vermentino di Sardegna Doc, which can be produced throughout the region, and Vermentino di Gallura, the only DOCG in Sardinia, born in the provinces of Olbia Tempio and Sassari. , which is not only one of the best white wines in Italy, but is produced in different types, including sparkling and passito. Notable expressions of the territory are also the Nasco and the Nuragus of Cagliari, and above all the Vernaccia di Oristano, a complex white also ideal for long aging. Excellent results from native white berried grapes both for classic method and charmat method sparkling wines, such as Torbato and Vermentino, and for dessert wines, such as Malvasia di Bosa and Moscato di Sardegna. Sardinian red wines The most famous Sardinian red wine is undoubtedly Cannonau , brought to the island by the Spaniards (where it is still known as Alicante), which is divided into classic (if grown throughout the Nuorese and Ogliastra area) and in sub-areas Oliena, Jerzu and Capo Ferrato. The other autochthonous red berried grape is Carignano del Sulcis, which gives life to red and rosé wines, which in the appellation are also available in the Riserva, Superiore, Novello and Passito types. Not to be forgotten then, the red berried grapes such as Bovale and Cagnulari which, cultivated as sapling, are vinified in purity for very typical reds, and combined with other grapes in denominations such as Cagliari Doc and Terralba Doc. Last but not least the red Monica is important, which seems to have arrived in Sardinia thanks to the Camaldolese monks around the year 1000 and which is now produced throughout the island. What are the Sardinian DOCG wines? In Sardinia there is only one DOCG and it is Vermentino di Gallura DOCG, but there are 19 DOCs and 15 IGTs capable of satisfying all palates. The most famous denominations are undoubtedly the Vermentino di Sardegna DOC, the Cannonau di Sardegna DOC and the Carignano del Sulcis DOC, but there is no shortage of excellence even among sweet wines with authentic gems such as Malvasia di Bosa DOC and Moscato di Sorso- Sennori DOC. What are the best Sardinian wines? The best Sardinian wines famous all over the world are the Terre Brune di Santadi, a masterpiece given to the island by the great enologist Giacomo Tachis, the Turriga di Argiolas, awarded by national and international guides and the Marchese di Villamarina, but also with white wines such as the Vermentino of Capichera. What is the best match for a typical Sardinian red wine? Sardinian red wines, so rich in character and with well-present tannins, are perfect in combination with complex and structured dishes, such as aged cheeses and especially meat dishes. Perfect with the taste of grilled meat, whether it is pork and beef, whether it is game and wild boar, they are definitely to be tried with aged cheeses and rustic dishes rich in taste, especially in the case of reserves or long-lasting wines. refinement like Turriga.


Sicily is a happy island for wine: from the slopes of Etna to the coasts of Cerasuolo, to the small islands of Salina and Pantelleria, each area has its own vine and style, with wines so different that sometimes they seem to come from different continents, obtained both from native grapes such as Grillo , Carricante and Frappato , and from great international vines that have found a small paradise on the island, such as Chardonnay . Viticulture in this region has ancient origins, suspended between the legend that tells of a thirsty Dionysus, from whose tears the first vine was born, and the history that documents the arrival of the Greeks, and before them even the Phoenicians, with the first rooted cuttings. Character and uniqueness of Sicilian red wines. The slopes of Etna certainly represent one of the most suitable areas for viticulture in Sicily, with excellent results for Sicilian red wine, which here takes on an almost alpine elegance. Here the extreme conditions such as the volcanic soil, the slope of the land and the altitude of the vineyards make viticulture heroic and there are few indigenous vines, such as Nerello Mascalese and Nerello Cappuccio. However, Sicily has many other interesting denominations as regards red wines: in addition to Etna Doc we find in fact, next to the very small Doc Eloro, which preserves rare native vines such as Perricone and Pignatello, the Contessa Entellina denomination, cradle of cult Sicilian reds , such as Mille e Una Notte, obtained from Nero d'Avola or from international Cabernet and Merlot grapes . Not to be forgotten is the Cerasuolo di Vittoria, in south-eastern Sicily, the only DOCG in the region and an admirable blend of Nero d'Avola and Frappato. Sicilian white wine: dry or sweet, it is however a masterpiece. Carricante, Grillo, Chardonnay, Malvasia : Sicily is not only home to great red wines but also to intense and fragrant whites and sweet wines to make you lose your mind. From the aromatic grapes of Chardonnay are born Sicilian white wines for aging in Doc Melfi and Alcamo, able to compete with the great wines of Burgundy , while Moscato , Zibibbo and Malvasia give life to fresh and exciting wines in Salina and on the Sicilian coasts, which become splendid sweet passito wines in Pantelleria, Lipari and Noto. The results of heroic viticulture on Etna are also exceptional, where the whites obtained from Carricante grapes stand out for their minerality and longevity. Last but not least, Marsala, born mainly from white grapes and historical wine of the island of Sicily. What is the finest Sicilian wine? It is difficult to answer this question, because Sicily has a wine production equal to that of Veneto and Tuscany , certainly we cannot fail to mention among the red wines the Mille e Una Notte by Donnafugata and the Harmonium by Firriato among the red wines and Planeta's Chardonnay among whites. However, there are other wineries that produce excellent wines such as Tasca d'Almerita and Duca di Salaparuta, Li Ciuri and Cusumano, Palmento Costanzo and Nicosia just to name a few. Finally, among the big names in sweet wines, we cannot forget the Marsala di Florio and the sweet wines of Donnafugata. What is the oldest sweet Sicilian wine? Marsala is undoubtedly one of the oldest sweet wines in Sicily: as early as 1832 Vincenzo Florio, a native of Bagnara Calabra, exported this sweet wine to over 99 countries around the world. What is the best match for a white Sicilian wine? The Sicilian white wines, with their characteristic intensity that unites them all, the minerality that characterizes those of Etna and the savory notes typical of those born on the islands are perfect in combination with all fish dishes rich in taste, from dishes with sardines up to pasta with swordfish, passing through fish soups and cous cous up to stuffed squid and sweet and sour tuna and aubergine caponata.


Sud-ovest della Francia


Szekszard is a wine region located south of Hungary not well known on the international wine scene but which produces pleasant and fragrant red wines, relatively well structured from Kekfrankos, Kadarka grapes and the typical Bordeaux varieties: Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Merlot; the blend at the base of the classic Bikaver, a wine made famous by the Eger region. It is located on the western border of Alföld - the great Hungarian plain that occupies most of the wider Pannonian Plain, about 160 km from the coast. The climate is sunny, warm, dry and continental: sultry summer afternoons are followed by cold nights, with considerable changes in temperature. The Pannonian Plain is surrounded by vast mountain ranges, the Alps to the west, the Dinaric Alps to the south and the Carpathians to the north and east, which protect it from climatic influences from the Mediterranean or the Black Sea. In addition to producing red wines, Szekszard is also land of white wines, made mainly from Riesling Italico or Weslchriesling and Chardonnay grapes which are distinguished by low acidity and a delicate, spicy and woody character due to the time spent in Hungarian oak barrels. Light wines based on Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc are occasionally produced in the colder mesoclimate.



Tokaj, formerly known as Tokaj-Hegyalja, is a wine-growing region of Hungary that has gained a high international reputation thanks to the fame of its sweet nectar-like wines, a product so esteemed that it is also mentioned within of the Hungarian national anthem. Located in the north-east near the border with Slovakia, it covers an area of about 40 km. Its main production centers are the cities of Mad, Tarcal and Tokaj, from which the region takes its name. The climate is relatively warm, protected by the rising mountain range of the Carpathians. The soils are very varied, with volcanic clays in the highest parts of the hill slopes and layers of loess and other soils of sedimentary origin to cover the base. Sandy soils prevail near the banks of the Bodrog River, especially around the city of Tokaj. The grape varieties with which Tokaji wines are produced are Furmint, Harslevelu, and Muscat Blanc (Sárga Muskotály in Hungarian). Dominating the blend, Furmint has naturally high acidity and high sugar levels that guarantee phenomenal aging potential, as well as a pleasantly spicy flavor profile unlike any other sweet passito wine. Tokaji is obtained by means of botrytized grapes (aszú), that is covered by the noble rot Botrytis cinerea which dehydrates the berries, concentrating the sugars and leaving a characteristic honeysuckle aroma. The sweetness of botrytized Tokaji wines is expressed in puttonyos. A puttonyo is a large basket used for harvesting grapes: the number of puttonyos added to a 136-liter barrel of base wine is a traditional measure of the sweetness of the wine. Today this sweetness is expressed in grams of sugar per liter, with 3 puttonyos corresponding to 25 grams per liter, the lowest sugar content, up to Eszencia, with 800 grams per liter, which is sweet and so low in alcohol not even be considered a wine. Tokaji also produces non-botrytized wines which are gradually gaining more popularity. Since Hungary imposed stringent regulations on the production of Tokaj wines, there have been several legal disputes concerning the use of the name as Tokay is the name that has always been used as a synonym for Pinot Grigio, in Alsace, and in Friuli it is preceded traditionally the prefix Tocai to the Friulano variety.


Tuscan wines are, together with those of Piedmont and Veneto , the most famous Italian wines in the world: great excellences such as Brunello di Montalcino , Bolgheri (primarily Sassicaia Bolgheri Doc) and Supertuscan have made known the excellence of made in Italy in the world. In Tuscany Sangiovese and indigenous grapes are protagonists alongside international vines such as Cabernet and Merlot , in a territory that, like no other, seems to have been created specifically to produce excellent wines. If a legend widespread at the time of the Medici told that Noah landed in Tuscany with his ark and planted the first vine cuttings, what is certain is that in Tuscany the winemaking tradition is so ancient that, unlike other regions, it surpasses the Romans and the Greeks and reaches up to the Etruscan civilization. Tuscan red wine? A well-stocked cellar cannot be missing. Tuscan red wines are the red wines for aging par excellence: Brunello di Montalcino has a longevity that exceeds 20 years, and great surprises in this sense also reserve the Nobile di Montepulciano and Carmignano, a less known appellation but with an ancient tradition, born from the union of Sangiovese with Cabernet Franc brought to Italy by Caterina De 'Medici. However, Tuscan red wine is also synonymous with conviviality, with Chianti in all its nuances, from the traditional flask to the magnum bottles in wooden boxes of the great selections, and above all with Morellino di Scansano, a wild Sangiovese from Maremma. Last but not least other small denominations such as Sant'Antimo Doc, Rosso di Montalcino and Montecucco, in which Sangiovese is and remains the true protagonist. Finally, some producers have tried their hand at Tuscany with the most cursed of the vines, Pinot Nero , obtaining very interesting results. Tuscan white wines: a less known reality to be discovered In Tuscany there is only one Tuscan DOCG white: Vernaccia di San Gimignano. Born from native grapes, it is said that the wine that cuts and pricks was the favorite of the greatest Florentine genius: Michelangelo Buonarroti. Then there are numerous DOC and IGT denominations, which see Vermentino excel, aged in steel or wood, alongside international vines such as Chardonnay and Sauvignon . Trebbiano Toscano is another widespread grape variety, which combined with Malvasia gives life to the famous Vin Santo, in its various and precious golden declinations such as Vin Santo del Chianti Classico and Vin Santo Occhio di Pernice. What is the finest Tuscan wine? The most famous Tuscan red, Chianti Classico, links an ancient legend to its main symbol, the black rooster. In fact, it is said that the cities of Siena and Florence had to decide the territorial boundaries by bringing together two knights, both departed to the crowing of the cock, white for the Sienese and black for the Florentines. The Florentines, much more cunning, kept their black rooster stiff, locked in the cage, in the two days preceding the competition and the poor animal, in a panic, opened the cage immediately went out to sing, even if it was the middle of the night. This early departure with respect to dawn allowed Florence to establish the boundary of its province near the city of Siena, where it still is today, in the heart of the Chianti area. Which is the longest-lived Tuscan DOCG red wine? The longest-lived Tuscan DOCG red wine is undoubtedly Brunello : it manages to evolve in the cellar even for more than 20 years, developing extraordinary aromas and thus becoming one of the best meditation red wines in the world. What is the best Tuscan white wine to pair with fish dishes? The best Tuscan white wine to combine with fish menus is definitely Vermentino which, born from the vineyards caressed by the sea breezes, manages to enhance seafood dishes thanks to a natural flavor and freshness. Seeing is believing!


Trentino Alto Adige is an internationally famous region for the elegance of its wines, where viticulture has ancient origins, which date back to the Illyrian civilization, present in the area before the arrival of the Romans. Viticulture had a great revival in the medieval period thanks to the abbeys, which produced wine by harvesting the grapes from small winemakers (the story still continues today in reality as the Abbey of Novacella). In South Tyrol today there is one of the most qualified universities in Europe, the school of San Michele all'Adige, famous because it was here that the action of sulfur against powdery mildew was tested for the first time. This region, with a production of almost 1,400,000 hectoliters, has 10 different DOCs, 6 IGTs and no DOCGs and has a particularly favorable climate for viticulture thanks to the influences of the Peler and Ora winds, which make the temperatures of the Valle dei Lakes, allowing the Nosiola grapes to dry perfectly in the racks and vinify an excellent Vino Santo, and the Valle Isarco, where the great Rieslings manage to achieve excellence. Trentino red wine Trentino red wine is known above all thanks to Teroldego Rotaliano, the native red wine famous thanks to Elisabetta Foradori. Other local red wines from Trentino Alto Adige are Lagrein , suitable for long aging but also for rosé vinification, Schiava, present in the variants Schiava grigio, Schiava grossa and Schiava gentile, and Pinot Nero , which he found in the Egna area -Now one of the areas most suited to it and in Franz Haas one of the most famous producers. South Tyrolean red wines are characterized by great elegance and minerality, fruity and rich aromas and good longevity. In the Trentino area alone, Marzemino is also widespread, known for being the wine of Mozart's Don Giovanni, and used for red wines, sparkling wines and rosé wines. One of the most awarded and interesting Trentino producers is undoubtedly Tenuta San Leonardo , which with its blends based on Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot has managed to obtain wines capable of challenging the great Bordeaux . Trentino white wine The Trentino but above all South Tyrolean white wine is famous for wines born from aromatic grapes such as Gewürztraminer , Moscato Giallo and the native Kerner , but in Trentino Alto Adige also the great international vines such as Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, give excellent results. Sylvaner and Pinot Blanc . Among the main producers there are both large cooperative wineries such as Colterenzio , Terlano and Abbazia di Novacella as well as small independent producers such as Manni Nössing and Köfererhof , with wines ideal for immediate consumption, such as Omnes Dies, alongside great crus perfect for aging. important, such as the Quarz di Terlano and the wines of the Praepositus di Novacella line. As for the native Trentino grapes we have Nosiola and Manzoni Bianco, the latter which gives life to long-lived and rich wines. How high is the production of wine in Trentino Alto Adige? The production of wine in Trentino Alto Adige amounts to about 1400000 hectoliters per year What are the best wines of Trentino Alto Adige? Among the best wines of Trentino Alto Adige we certainly have those of Terlano, such as Quarz and Nova Domus. What are the best red wines of Trentino Alto Adige? Among the best red wines of Trentino Alto Adige we cannot fail to include San Leonardo, the award-winning Trentino red able to compete with the great Bordeaux.


Umbria, a small region that has always been identified as the green heart of Italy, is characterized by a limited quantity of wine production, but of excellent quality. Here the ancient peasant traditions are still alive, which give life to wines with a strong link with the centuries-old tradition and the territory. Numerous archaeological finds testify that the Etruscans and Umbrians were already involved in viticulture, even before the arrival of the Romans. This long wine history is closely linked to the climatic and geographical characteristics of the region, which with its hills represents an ideal territory for the cultivation of the vine.

Valle Central

The Central Valley is one of the most important Chilean productive regions in terms of volume, which extends between the Valle del Maipo and that of the Maule covering a distance of about 400 kilometers. Inside it includes a considerable variety of climates and terroirs as well as production styles, from the Bordeaux-style wines typical of Maipo to the more traditional ones characteristic of Maule. But wines obtained from cooler climates, such as those made from vineyards located in the Andean Prealps and the river valleys tempered by the proximity to the Pacific Ocean, have been successful in recent years. The most common vines are those of international origin, above all Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Syrah, Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. Carmenère is also given due consideration and it is not uncommon for winemakers to experiment with varieties such as Viognier, Riesling and even Gewurztraminer.

Valle d'Aosta

Valle de Casablanca

Located 100 kilometers north-west of the capital of Santiago, the Valle de Casablanca is mainly known for its fresh white wines produced from Sauvignon Blanc and Chardonnay grapes, but Pinot Noir is also cultivated with good results. suitable for the cooler climates of the coastal area. Being only 30 kilometers from the Pacific Ocean, it is strongly affected by the cold Humboldt current that goes up the western coast of Chile from the Antarctic. The latitude so close to that of the Equator would make viticulture impossible but the oceanic influence that brings fresh fog in the morning , cool afternoon breezes and good cloud cover are able to counterbalance this extreme condition by creating an exclusive place of cultivation. The longer ripening period allows the white grapes to develop greater gustatory complexity while maintaining a good balance between the concentration of sugars and acids. For some years now, aromatic white grape varieties such as Gewürztraminer and Riesling have also been flourishing, demonstrating that Chile is not a viticultural area entirely reserved for red wines.

Valle de Colchagua

The Valle de Colchagua is one of the most promising areas of South America, much more recent than the famous Valle del Maipo, from which some of the nation's most prestigious wines come. Characterized by very advantageous climatic conditions, it attracted interest no less than the Rothschilds of Bordeaux who decided to found their Los Vascos winery here. Located near the Equator line, it is a very hot and dry area, mitigated by the breezes of the Pacific Ocean and by occasional refreshing rains, creating ideal conditions for the cultivation of the vine. The great attention paid in recent years to wine tourism has led this region to equip itself with structures designed specifically to create attraction for tourists, becoming in some ways comparable to the California Napa Valley.

Valle de Ica

Valle de Leyda

Valle de Leyda is a small sub-region of the wider San Antonio Valley, located 90 kilometers west of the capital of Santiago. Its cool climate due to the effect of the Humboldt Antarctic Current helps to generate fresh and vibrant wines which are mainly produced with Pinot Noir and Chardonnay grapes. There is no shortage of excellent examples of wines made from Syrah and Sauvignon Blanc grapes. The region stretches along a series of rolling hills on the marine side of the coastal range that protects much of central Chile from ocean influences. The proximity to the coast allows the vineyards to benefit from cold breezes and the morning fog that contribute to mitigate the high temperatures overall, therefore it is characterized by a climate that tends to be cold despite its low latitude. The hot sun, however present, allows a complete ripening of the bunches that develop complexity while maintaining a good acidity. The predominantly clayey soils are distributed on a granite base with moderate drainage. These not very fertile soils give life to high quality grapes as the vines are forced to fight for their survival by digging into the soil in search of nutrients and thus produce small and concentrated grapes that define a structured and complex taste in the final wine.

Valle del Bío-Bío

Valle del Limarì

The Limari Valley is one of the most northerly regions of Chile. Its low latitude would not be compatible with viticulture but its overall dry and warm climate is balanced by the influence of the Limarí river which has opened a passage in the coastal hills and from the morning fog known as Camanchaca which cools and humidifies the vineyards. When the sun reaches its highest position, above the Andes, a hot and dry climate is re-established, almost desert, which characterizes the part of Chile closest to the equator. A similar climatic effect can also be found in the coastal wine regions of California, the most famous of which is undoubtedly Napa Valley. Precipitation is scarce and irrigation is carried out with drip systems. Rare limestone soils are found in this region, former sea beds raised by the tectonic activity of the Andean faults. Chardonnay is the protagonist vine of the Limari Valley from which wines characterized by a certain minerality are obtained, thanks to the relatively cold climate and the calcareous soil on which it grows. Syrah is also successful in this region, from which more savory wines are obtained in the fresh vineyards of the coastal areas or fuller and more fruity wines in the warmer areas of the hinterland. However, there is no shortage of productions starting from the most popular varieties in Chile, namely Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Carmenère.

Valle del Maipo

Valle del Maipo is one of the most important wine-growing regions in Chile. Located just south of the capital Santiago, it is often described as the "Bordeaux of South America" for its famous rich and fruity Cabernet Sauvignon wines born from the travels of entrepreneurs Chilean miners of the 1800s in France. The Coastal Range isolates the Maipo Valley from the Pacific coast while the Andean reliefs separate it from the famous Argentine region of Mendoza. The region can be divided into three areas: the Alto Maipo, the Central Maipo and the Maipo Bajo. The Alto Maipo vineyards run along the eastern border with the Andes where they reach 400-760 meters above sea level. At these altitudes there are significant temperature variations between day and night: the hot day sun is followed by colder nights that slow down the ripening of the grapes, determining a greater balance between the sugary and acidic components of the fruits. The soils of colluvial origin, ie obtained from the gravity fall of the Andean rocks, are difficult for viticulture and this leads the vine plants to produce smaller, highly concentrated berries. Alto Maipo, which includes the sub-regions of Puente Alto and Pirque, is undoubtedly the most prestigious area. Central Maipo is characterized by a slightly warmer climate and more clayey and fertile soils that bring to light the less refined Cabernet Sauvignon and Carmenère wines. Maipo Bajo has more wineries than vineyards, which produce wine from grapes from all over the nation; local viticulture develops only around the river thanks to the mitigating influence of cold breezes. Since 1980 there has been a gradual technological advancement, with the introduction of drip irrigation but also of stainless steel tanks and oak barrels, which leads to controlled vinification and higher quality wines.

Valle del Rapel

The Rapel Valley is a large Chilean production region that guarantees about a quarter of all the nation's wine. It creates a wide range of wine styles, ranging from everyday wines to excellences of absolute prestige. Viticulture is mainly based on the cultivation of red grape varieties, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah and Carmenère, as well as the Malbec that has become famous in adjacent Mendoza, but there are also some productions of Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. Surrounded on both sides by mountain ranges - the Andes to the east and the Coast Range to the west - the Rapel Valley is largely protected from the cold currents of the Pacific Ocean. It owes its name to the Rapel river of the same name, born from the confluence of the Tinguiririca and Cachapoal rivers, which trace the boundaries of two very different sub-regions: the Cachapoal Valley to the north and the Colchagua Valley to the south. In the Cachapoal Valley the best vineyards are located on the east side, to which the Andes provide beneficial protection for viticulture. In the Colchagua Valley, on the other hand, the best vineyards extend to the west, where the cold influences of the ocean contribute to the creation of more elegant and balanced wines. While the Cachapoal Valley is better known locally, the Colchagua Valley has made itself known internationally. The Rapel Valley does not cover a specific administrative area but is part of the wider O'Higgins region which takes its name from one of the most famous leaders of the War of Independence from Spain in the 19th century.

Valle del Rodano

Located in the south-eastern part of France, the Rhone Valley is one of the most significant wine-growing areas, whose extension follows the course of the Rhone, from Lyon to the delta of the river that flows into the Mediterranean. The territory is very vast and is characterized by a remarkable variety of soils and mesoclimate. The north and south areas of the valley are clearly distinguished, given the absence of vineyards between them for about 40 kilometers. The northern part is smaller but more marked by quality, mainly characterized by the presence of granite hills and an overall continental climate. From it come great white wines made from Viognier, Marsanne and Roussanne grapes, but above all great red wines made from Syrah grapes. It includes highly reputed areas such as Hermitage and Côte-Rôtie. The southern part of the valley, on the other hand, is more prolific and less prestigious but contains the famous appellation Châteauneuf-du-pape.

Valle della Bekaa

Vayots Dzor


Veneto is a land of ancient winemaking traditions, which today boasts the primacy in Italy for the production of DOC wines. The wine production of the region is qualified not only through the widest and most varied panorama of vineyards and wines, from whites to reds, from sparkling wines to passito, but also thanks to a strong vocation for quality, with as many as 14 DOCG wines, 28 DOC wines and 10 IGT wines. Much of the Veneto, due to its climatic and morphological characteristics, is an area where excellent grapes are grown; viticulture is practiced both in the flat area, very rich in streams, and on the hills, which have a mild climate and fertile soils. With its 78,200 hectares of vineyards it is certainly one of the most interesting regions, especially for the variety of wines produced there, from the great reds of Valpolicella such as Amarone and Ripasso, to the fragrant and intense whites such as Soave and Lugana (denomination that it shares with the Lombardia) to Prosecco in its various variations, from Asolo DOCG to Cartizze . Venetian red wine Venetian red wine is known all over the world thanks to Amarone della Valpolicella . This red wine obtained from grapes subjected to drying ranks among the great Italian reds, and due to its characteristics of longevity and structure it is often one of the most coveted wines by collectors. In Valpolicella, however, there is also Valpolicella ripasso (obtained by resting on the lees of Amarone), and the classic and superior Valpolicella. Not far away, we find Bardolino , more fruity and easy to drink, especially loved across the border. In Veneto there are also non-native grapes, such as on the Berici Hills, where Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot are at home, alongside the curious local grape Tocai Rosso, similar to Cannonau or Grenache . Finally, interesting results are obtained from the Carmenere grape and above all from the Raboso, which gives life to an excellent red wine and a noteworthy passito. Veneto white wine Veneto white wine has been successful thanks to the Lugana denomination (in common with Lombardy), an excellent white wine with complex aromas, which is also interesting for aging. The Soave and Gambellara appellation was also of great importance, in which white wines have made famous producers such as Pieropan. Among the white vines of interest there are undoubtedly the Vespaiola, with which the Torcolato di Breganze passito wine is produced, but also the yellow Moscato, which in the Euganean Hills originates the Moscato Fiori d'Arancio DOCG, a sweet sparkling wine with greedy aromas. However, white wine in Veneto means above all Glera , with a growing production of Prosecco, which recently saw the release of the new Prosecco rosé, born from Glera and Pinot Nero. What is the best Venetian red wine? Amarone della Valpolicella is undoubtedly the best Venetian red wine, and ranks among the best Italian wines thanks to its longevity, which allows it to age in the cellar for up to 20 or 30 years like Barolo and Brunello. What is the best match for Veneto white wine? Veneto white wine is rich in aromas and normally does not have much acidity, which is why it is suitable for pairing with river fish but also with egg-based dishes or enriched with sauces with aromatic herbs and bechamel. Try for example to combine Soave with pasta alla carbonara or Lugana with trout alla mugnaia, it will be a success! Which are the most famous wine producers in Veneto? The most famous wine producers of Veneto are undoubtedly those of Valpolicella, such as Quintarelli, Masi, Bertani, but also Tommasi, Dal Forno and Allegrini. However, there are also prominent names in the Soave denomination, such as Pieropan.


Small but important wine district in northern Austria, Wachau is one of the most famous and renowned regions in the world, known for its generous steel-aged Rieslings and full-bodied Grüner Veltliners with a distinctive pepper aroma. Wachau extends along the Danube River to the city of Krems-an-der-Donau which is also the center from which trade develops. Most of the vineyards are terraced, located on steep slopes overlooking the river, in a position favorably exposed to the sun's rays. The climate is divided into two zones: a colder one due to the presence of the Eastern Alps, to the west, and a warmer one near the Pannonian plain. Overall, the climate is continental, with hot summers and cold winters, although along the banks of the Danube the climate is milder. The soil is characterized by a good presence of sand, gravel and loess, to which is sometimes added a special type of gneiss called gföhler which gives a certain minerality to the wines of the region.


Washington state is located in the Pacific Northwest and is bordered to the south by Oregon. Despite its recent winemaking history, it is the second most productive state in the United States, after California. Almost all the wine produced comes from the easternmost part, characterized by a hot desert climate but there is some cultivation also in the colder and humid west part. Among the predominant red grape varieties we find Merlot, Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah, while among the white grape varieties, Chardonnay and Riesling stand out in absolute terms. However the region produces quality wine from 70 different grape varieties. The Cascades Range defines the geography of the region by acting as a barrier to precipitation. Without irrigation water drawn from local waterways, Columbia, Walla Walla, Yakima and Snake, viticulture would not be possible. The rivers also mitigate summer and winter temperatures. The soils of alluvial origin are composed of gravel and sand which are suitable soils for viticulture but also a protection against phylloxera aphid: for this reason most of the region's vines are ungrafted. The latitude of Washington, 46 ° N, with days with even 17 hours of light, even more than California, and the favorable temperature variations allow to obtain vines capable of reaching full maturity while retaining a fundamental acidity.

Western Cape

Western Cape, or Western Cape, is home to some of South Africa's most famous wine regions: Stellenbosch and Paarl. Produces a wide variety of wines: fresh, full-bodied and bold reds from Shiraz and Pinotage grapes, elegant reds with high aging potential made from Cabernet Sauvignon or Bordeaux blends, Walker Bay wines made from grapes Pinot Noir and Chardonnay characterized by a style that recalls that of Burgundy and the Sauvignon Blancs that originate in the cold climates of Darling and Overberg. The vineyard areas extend for 300 km, from Cape Town to the mouth of the Olifants River in the north and 360 km up to Mossel Bay in the east The vineyards are generally never located more than 160 km from the coast: the climate can be cool and rainy, like at Cape Point and Walker Bay, but more often than not it is Mediterranean in nature. Inland, the influence of the Great Karoo Desert is felt. The Western Cape region is dotted with spectacular mountain ranges that form the Cape Fold belt, of extreme importance for viticulture as it helps to define optimal soils and meso climates for the vine. Granite, schist and sandstone are the predominant types of soil but there is no lack of clayey alluvial soils along the beds of the Breede, Berg and Olifants rivers. The surrounding oceans, Atlantic and Indian, play a very important role in the climate of the region, acting through the respective currents of Bengula and Agulhas. The first vineyards were planted in the 17th century by European colonizers: Stellenbosch owes its name to the colonizer Simon van der Stel. The vines devastated by phylloxera in the 19th century have been replaced by very productive varieties such as Cinsaut. After producing only brandy and fortified wines for a certain period, South Africa significantly resumed the production of still and sparkling wines after Apartheid.


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