Grapes

Aglianico

Aglianico is a black grape variety widespread above all in the regions of southern Italy, in particular in Campania, Basilicata and partly in Puglia and Molise. Its cultivation occupies a total area of about 7500 ha. In the past it was believed that his name derives from an adaptation of the term Hellenic which indicated a possible Greek origin. However, these Greek origins currently remain only probable. Since DNA investigations have shown that Aglianico has no affinity with dark grape varieties currently present in Greece. We are not even sure that it is one of the grapes that in ancient Roman times were called Aminae and which were the basis of famous wines such as Falernum , Caecubum , Gauranum or Faustianum . However, the presence of many and different biotypes would seem to confirm its ancient origins. The different climatic and geological conformation of the areas in which Aglianico matures has made the differences between the Aglianico produced in Campania in the Taurasi area, that linked to the Benevento area and known as Aglianico del Taburno and that coming from Basilicata, appreciable over time. and known as Aglianico del Vulture spreading near Monte Vulture. Preferring soils of volcanic origin, Aglianico grows well on hilly and mountain slopes with good exposure but cooled by the wind. It is a late ripening vine and is usually vinified alone as a red wine or in combination with other red grape varieties such as Piedirosso and Merlot. The grapes are often subject to aging in cask or barrique to loosen the hardness of the tannins in the post-fermentation phase and give a more worked, round and harmonious wine. Aglianico produces a wine of great structure and longevity, rich in tannins and acidity. For this reason it requires long aging times before reaching balance and harmony, while in the younger version it has a greater roundness of fruit always accompanied by a sustained acidity. Among the most famous denominations based on Aglianico we remember Taurasi DOCG, Aglianico del Vulture DOC, Aglianico del Taburno DOCG. Aglianico del Vulture Aglianico del Vulture comes from the Basilicata region and takes its name from Mount Vulture around which the vineyards develop. On volcanic soils and with an altitude of up to 800 meters above sea level, this DOC hosts the Riserva version which provides for an aging of up to 3 years. Particularly suitable for roasts, game and hard cheeses, it is a wine with compact aromas and able to offer greater balance and pleasantness to the palate when aged in wood. Aglianico del Taburno Since 2011 classified as DOCG, Aglianico del Taburno, also present as Rosato, is grown in the provinces of Benevento and Avellino, and requires the use of the Aglianico grape for 85%. With a dry and soft taste, it requires 3 years of aging in the Riserva version, of which at least 12 months in wooden barrels. Pleasant on the palate and persistent, it accompanies grilled fish, cod with tomato and slightly aged cheeses. Can I buy a white Aglianico online? Although the organoleptic characteristics of Aglianico are famously linked to red vinification with the consequent contribution of tannins and coloring substances, some producers have developed a white vinification of Aglianico avoiding the maceration of the skins of the berries with the must obtained from pressing the grapes. In this way, by removing the pomace, the release of coloring substances is eliminated. Which is the best producer of Aglianico del Vulture? When it comes to wine it is difficult to judge without taking into account everyone's taste. There are many valid and appreciated producers of Aglianico del Vulture and in our online wine shop you will find a wide selection of Aglianico del Vulture with products complete with characteristics, awards and awards for each vintage. Be inspired by our bottles and have fun buying your Aglianico del Vulture online. What are the best combinations for Aglianico del Vulture? Being a wine with a sustained acidity and evident tannic consistency, Aglianico lends itself well to accompanying red meats in general, lamb, first courses based on meat sauce and, when aged for long periods, it can also be used as a wine for meditation.

Albana

Ancient grape variety dating back to Roman times, is today deeply linked to the district of the Romagna hills. Among the most important white berried varieties of Emilia-Romagna, its name seems to be associated with the Latin term "albus", white, or with the Alban Hills. Vinified in practically every winery in the Spungone area of Romagna, that is, a soil based on sandstone and limestone that from Imola reaches the municipality of Bertinoro, in the province of Cesena. Vinified in purity, Albana gives rise to the Albana di Romagna denomination, the first DOCG in Italy. The sugar content that it can develop makes it ideal for the production of raisin wines, a characteristic that finds its highest point in Romagna Albana Passito DOCG. The lively tannic component that can be found in the skins of the Albana produces interesting results in "red" vinification tests, that is, with maceration on the skins.

Albariño

Albarola

Aleatico

Aleatico is a semi-aromatic black grape variety of Greek origin. Its name seems to derive from the Greek Iouliatico , that is "which matures in the month of July". Today it is widespread especially in Tuscany, especially on the island of Elba and on the Grosseto and Livorno coasts, in Puglia and Lazio. Related to the distant with the White Moscato and genetic variant of the black berry Moscato, it resembles the Piedmontese vines for perfumes and flavor. This aromaticity and its ability to accumulate sugars make it an ideal grape variety for the production of passito wine, one above all. Elba Aleatico Passito DOCG.

Areni Noir

Arneis

Arneis is the autochthonous Piedmontese grape variety with a white grape symbol of Roero . The Roero area extends on the left bank of the Tanaro river, right in front of the Langhe hills and the famous villages of Barolo and Barbaresco. It is an area very suitable for viticulture . The arneis vine is quite vigorous, has good productivity and generally ripens towards the end of September. The wine has a straw yellow color. The olfactory profile is intense and of great elegance, with aromas of flowers, white fruit and tropical nuances. On the palate it has a rich, full, soft, pleasantly fruity bouquet with moderate acidity. In addition to still wines, some companies produce sparkling versions, both with the Charmat method and with the Classic method. Arneis is an excellent aperitif and goes very well with fish or vegetable appetizers, cereal and vegetable soups, seafood first courses and more generally with fish menus. Try pairing with tomini, grilled robiola or a platter of fresh cheeses.

Asprinio

Widespread especially in Campania, precisely in the Caserta and Neapolitan areas, Asprinio is deeply linked to the municipality of Aversa. Grape variety probably derived from the ancient wild vines domesticated by the Etruscans, from which its traditional aversana tree-growing system also descends. Its affinity with sandy soils has protected it in part from phylloxera, therefore it is possible to find crops of this variety bred free-range. From it we obtain wines with a characteristic greenish color, characterized by an evident hint of lemon and a disruptive acidity, almost harsh, for this "asprinio", which makes it an extremely suitable grape for sparkling wine in the Aversa Asprinio DOC.

Assyrtiko

Baco Noir

Barbera

If nebbiolo, with its maximum and famous expressions of Barolo and Barbaresco, represents the noble and aristocratic soul of Piedmontese red wines, Barbera is instead the wine that best embodies popular, daily and peasant culture. The Barbera grape is an autochthonous Piedmontese red berried grape, historically present above all in the areas of Asti, Alba and Monferrato. From the lands of lower Piedmont, it then spread in the area of the Tortona hills, of Oltrepò Pavese, up to the valleys of Piacentino. For its generous and vigorous nature, the Barbera was then planted in other areas of the peninsula and we still find it present in Umbria, Marche, Abruzzo, Campania, Puglia, Basilicata and Calabria. Like many European varieties, it has followed the migratory flows that have brought it to some countries of the new world such as Australia, Argentina and the United States, especially California. The Barbera grape has good vigor and is very productive. Above all, this second characteristic is the basis of its success and its diffusion, so much so that together with the Sangiovese, it is today the most cultivated red berried grape in Italy . The vine produces quite large and heavy bunches, with dark berries of a blackish blue color covered with abundant bloom. The wine has very particular and recognizable characteristics. The color is ruby red with violet reflections. The nose reveals intense aromas with vinous notes, fresh aromas of ripe red fruit, violets and spices. The sip is dominated by an acidity that refreshes the palate in such an overwhelming way that it becomes the real distinctive feature of the wine. The classic combinations are with the local cuisine, especially with mixed boiled meats, cooked meats, agnolotti with meat sauces, cotechini, polenta and sausages, all foods that take advantage of the acid freshness of Barbera to balance a certain fatness.

Biancolella

Grape variety most likely of Greek origin, it was brought by the inhabitants of the island of Euboea to Corsica, where it is now cultivated with the name of Petite Blanche, and from there it reached the Italian peninsula. Widespread especially in Campania, especially in the islands of Ischia, Capri and Procida, it also enters the Amalfi Coast and the Lazio island of Ponza. It prefers warm and windy climates and mineral soils of mineral origin: this is why we find it in the maximum form inside the DOC Ischia Biancolella, in which it is able to fully develop its aromatic range. The result is savory, mineral and territorial wines. It also offers good results within the DOC Capri, Amalfi Coast, Sorrento Peninsula and Campi Flegrei.

Bombino Bianco

Bombino Nero

Black berry variety widespread mainly in Puglia and less in Basilicata and Sardinia, it is characterized by excellent yields in must and the thin and delicate skins that make it a lighter wine than the traditional full-bodied and structured reds that lately attract interest of some manufacturers who decide to include them in their range. But it is a variety that also arouses the attention of rosé producers who want to exploit its coloring power. Bombino Nero contributes to the Lizzano Rosso DOC denomination and is the main protagonist of Castel del Monte Bombino Nero DOCG where it is vinified in purity.

Bonarda

Bovale

Brachetto

Cabernet Franc

Cabernet franc and cabernet sauvignon , together with merlot, petit verdot and malbec, are the main vines that underlie the production of the great Bordeaux reds. When we speak of "Bordeaux cut", we refer to a blend of these noble grapes, which for centuries have been grown in the Medoc region. Cabernet franc is one of the oldest red berried varieties. Analyzes of his DNA have revealed that it is a grape variety originating in the Basque region, on the border between France and Spain, born from a spontaneous cross between two old grapes from the area: the morenoa and the hondarribi beltza. Through a series of other crossings, cabernet franc then generated the main Bordeaux vines that we know today as cabernet sauvignon, merlot and carmenère. Although his presence has become somewhat marginal, he is to be considered the true father of the great Bordeaux reds. In France it is also cultivated with excellent results in the Loire Valley, especially in the areas of Anjou, Saumurois and Touraine. In Italy it is widespread especially in the Triveneto, where in the past it has often been confused with the carmenère. The wine has an intense ruby red color with aromas of small red fruit and typical vegetable notes. It has a good structure, with important tannins and beautiful acidity, all characteristics that favor its excellent aging. Both the cabernet franc and the cabernet sauvignon, thanks to their structure and intensity, combine very well with second courses of roasted red meat, barbecued, stewed or with feather and fur game.

Cabernet Sauvignon

Cabernet franc and cabernet sauvignon , together with merlot, petit verdot and malbec, are the main vines that are the basis of the production of the great Bordeaux reds. Speaking of "Bordeaux cut", reference is made to a blend of these noble grapes, which have been cultivated in the Medoc region for centuries. In particular, cabernet sauvignon is today one of the most widespread varieties in the world of viticulture and together with merlot and chardonnay it is part of the limited number of international varieties spread in all countries of the wine world . It is a red grape variety from the Gironde region, it comes from a spontaneous cross between cabernet franc and sauvignon blanc. The bouquet expresses notes of small dark berry fruits, floral hints, slightly herbaceous and delicately spicy nuances. On the palate it has an important body and structure with a dense tannic texture and lively acidity. It is a wine destined for long aging, which needs to be refined in wood to express all its aromatic potential and to be enriched with interesting and complex tertiary notes. In Italy it is traditionally present in the regions of Triveneto, but has found a second home in Tuscany, in the Bolgheri area, where it expresses itself on very high quality levels, reaching full and perfect maturation with warmer and Mediterranean characteristics. Both the cabernet franc and the cabernet sauvignon , thanks to their structure and intensity, combine very well with second courses of roasted red meat, barbecued, stewed or with feather and fur game.

Canaiolo

The canaiolo is a dark grape variety of uncertain origin, but certainly very ancient. It is widespread especially in Tuscany, where it is often grown together with Sangiovese and to a lesser extent in the remaining regions of Central Italy. Still today it is used as a complementary variety in some historical Denominations of Tuscany, including the Chianti Classico, the Nobile di Montepulciano and the Carmignano. It is rarely vinified in purity, more often it is combined with Sangiovese, by virtue of its good structure and soft, fruity and harmonious profile.

Cannonau

The vine known in Sardinia with the name of cannonau , is actually the French grenache or better still the Spanish garnacha. It is a grape variety present throughout the Mediterranean area and among the most widespread in the world. Most likely it arrived in Sardinia during the period of the Aragonese domination of the thirteenth century AD Today it is grown throughout the island under the Sardinian Cannonau DOC Regional Denomination. The most suitable areas include: Nepente di Oliena, Capo Ferrato and Jerzu.

Carignano

Carignano is a grape present in many countries bordering the Mediterranean basin. It originates from Spain, where it is known by the name of Cariñena and is widespread in the French regions of Languedoc and Roussillon. In Italy it is grown mainly in southern Sardinia, in particular in the Sulcis area, where it found a perfect habitat on sandy soils near the sea, thanks to its preference for hot and dry climates. It produces intense, rich and complex wines, with a dense but refined tannic texture.

Carménère

Carricante

The carricante is an ancient Sicilian white grape variety, traditionally grown on the volcanic soils of the slopes of Etna. Even today it is present above all in the north-eastern area of the island. It matures towards the end of September and produces wines of great freshness and flavor, with an essential, floral and citrine profile. A white with great personality, vertical and almost edgy, all played on the notes of elegance and finesse.

Catarratto

It is one of the oldest varieties of white grape grown in Sicily, where it has spread to all provinces with the two main clones: common catarratto and shiny catarratto. However, its chosen territory remains the Trapani area, where it reaches high quality levels. Vinified in purity, it gives wines with good structure, with intense and elegant citrus and fruity aromas. The good basic acidity also favors longevity with interesting aromatic evolutions.

Cesanese

Chardonnay

Chardonnay is a semi-aromatic white grape variety originally from Burgundy and today widespread in many countries such as Italy, United States, Chile, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Israel, Argentina. Especially in Burgundy, Chardonnay has an early ripening which subjects the plant to spring frosts especially in the flat areas. Very versatile grape, Chardonnay lends itself to the production of fresh and young wines, as well as to products suitable for aging after a long phase of aging in barrique. Late harvesting often represents a problem due to the loss of acidity necessary to confer the conservation capacity for products falling within this category. In Italy, with 20.00 hectares dedicated to its production, Chardonnay is successfully produced in Piedmont, Trentino, Valle d'Aosta, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Lombardy where the acidity is more marked, while the diffusion in regions such as Puglia and Sicily is suitable for the production of wines with greater body and roundness. Therefore, there are many denominations that welcome Chardonnay such as Alto Adige, Castel del Monte, Trento, Trevenezie. The debate on the use of wood is still open, used both in the fermentation and aging phases, remaining a decisive choice in defining the style and recognisability of the producer. In particular, California has adopted this production style for Chardonnay, getting used to rich and dense wines, of great aromatic depth and very different from those produced in Burgundy. To understand the versatility of Chardonnay it would also be enough to compare the Chardonnay from the Chablis region with that produced in the more famous Burgundian area of the Côte de Beaune and in particular from the villages of Meursault, Puligny-Montrachet, or from more southern areas such as Mâconnais. Of particular interest is the New Zealand Chardonnay, with greater acidity, with an aromatic range including exotic fruit, floral scents and evident herbaceous tones. If we look at Chile, Chardonnay comes from the region of Casablanca, Leiden Valley and Lìmari Valley. In Chile, the quality of the Chardonnay produced depends enormously on the presence of the oceanic climate that influences the coastal regions: lemon peel, green apple and nuts combine with an intense minerality, resulting from the ripening of grapes subject to the presence of the cold Current of Humboldt from the Pacific. This type of Chilean Chardonnay, notoriously not aged in cask, is suitable for sushi dishes, seafood, white meat dishes and risottos with vegetables. Straw yellow in color, Chardonnay gives wines with hints of tropical fruits such as mango and pineapple, which evolve into hints of dried fruit such as almond and hazelnut, expressing, especially following malolactic fermentation and aging in barriques, aromas of butter and vanilla . Ideal in combination with foie gras and soft cheeses. Buy Chardonnay Buying Chardonnay on our site will be a useful and fun experience. In fact, thanks to our optimized search, you can buy the Chardonnay you are looking for with minimal effort and identifying exactly what suits your taste. You can try Planeta's Sicilian Chardonnay or experience the freshness of Ronco del Frassino. You will get to know the Savoy style or take a jump in the mountains with Tramin. If you want to try something international you can buy your Chardonnay ranging from Chile, New Zealand, United States, South Africa. Each of our Chardonnays is waiting for you. Have fun trying this vine and you will see that buying Chardonnay online will be a real pleasure! Does sparkling Chardonnay exist? Chardonnay is the basic grape variety in the production of Champagne and Franciacorta, both considered sparkling wines obtained with the Classic Method, a process that involves a second fermentation in the bottle. A base wine to which carbon dioxide is added and which is then stored in the bottle under pressure is usually defined as 'artificial sparkling'. What are the characteristics of the Chardonnay grape? Chardonnay grapes have medium sized clusters with a pyramidal and compact shape. the berries are medium-sized and yellow in color tending to golden. It is a variety with high vigor and usually tends to preserve the acidity of the fruit both to facilitate the production of sparkling wines and to maintain a good aging capacity. It develops very well on hilly soils with calcareous soils and shows extreme sensitivity to spring frosts due to early budding. What are the best Italian Chardonnays? Italy is rich in great examples of white wines and among the best Chardonnays can be considered: those from regions such as Trentino, Alto Adige and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, united by a colder climate that allows the development of greater minerality and hints that recall an evident acidity such as green apple, lime and pleasant herbaceous notes. On the contrary, Chardonnay bred in the southern regions of the peninsula is helped in ripening by losing part of the acid charge and presenting a more consistent body and hints of yellow and tropical fruit.

Chardonnay, Pinot Nero

Chenin Blanc

Cinsault

Cococciola

Coda Di Volpe

Cortese

Corvina

Croatina

Croatina is a variety native to northern Italy, most likely from Oltrepò Pavese, also present in Piedmont, in the provinces of Novara and Vercelli and in Emilia on the Piacenza hills. It is a rather rustic grape variety, which has spread mainly due to its resistance to diseases and good productivity. Vinified in purity, it gives a wine with good structure, with aromas of red fruits, rather rough tannic texture and low acidity.

Dolcetto

It is one of the most famous red berried vines of Piedmont. Most likely it originates from Monferrato, from where it then spread to Liguria and the province of Pavia. Before phylloxera, it was widely cultivated, today it is present above all in the areas of Asti, Alba, Dogliani, Ovada and Aqui. The wine is medium-bodied with aromas of plum and red fruit, thick tannins and rather low acidity.

Dorona

Durella

Erbaluce

Falanghina

Falanghina is an ancient Campania grape variety, present in the territory in two different clones: the Falanghina from Benevento and the Falanghina Flegrea. Its name derives from the Latin term falangae , which indicated the support poles used for its breeding. Its origins, however, are uncertain, but it could be part of the varieties brought to Italy by the Greeks during the first colonization. It is a variety that expresses itself very well on soils of ancient volcanic origin, with strong components of tuff. The wine is characterized by fragrant aromas of white fruit, supported by a lively freshness.

Fiano

Fiano is one of the noblest white grape varieties of our ampelographic heritage. It most likely arrived on the Campania coast during the period of the first Hellenic colonization, to then find its ideal habitat in the volcanic soils and in the fresh and continental climate of the hinterland of Irpinia to express the best qualities. It is a variety that produces elegant and refined wines, with aromas of white fruit and evolutionary notes that veer towards dried fruit and honey. It is always supported by a very high natural acidity, which guarantees an extraordinary longevity.

Folle Blanche

Frappato

Freisa

Friulano

The vine we now call Friulian was known by the name of tocai before the European Court of Justice forbade its use with a judgment of 2005, to avoid confusion with the Hungarian Tokaji wine, produced with the furmint grape. In reality, the original name of the Friulian grape variety is s auvignonasse and it is a French variety originating in the Bordeaux area, imported into Italy during the 1800s. The resulting wine has a good body, is harmonious, with floral, fruity aromas and a finish with a slightly almond note. Today it is grown mainly in Friuli Venezia Giulia and in some areas of the Veneto.

Fumin

Furmint

Gaglioppo

Garganega

Garganega is the most common white grape variety in the Veronese area. It is an ancient vine present for centuries in the territory of the hills north-east of Verona. It has found its chosen terrain especially in the area of Soave and Monteforte d'Alpone, on land of ancient volcanic origin. Black soils, consisting mainly of basalts, mixed with tuffs and limestone extrusions, the result of submarine magmatic eruptions. A highly prized terroir, which manages to convey to the Garganega structure and notes of particular finesse and flavor. The preference of the vine for the soils of volcanic matrix is confirmed by the excellent results that are obtained in Gambellara, on the hill hills near the Lessini Mountains. Garganega is a very productive plant and is usually bred according to the ancient use of the Veronese pergola. A system that after a period of abandonment in favor of guyot, has been reevaluated for its ability to better protect the bunches from the sun, maintaining a greater balance between sugar and acidity. The wine has a straw yellow color with golden reflections. The nose opens with notes of white flowers, ripe and final fruit with a characteristic almond note. It is a harmonious wine, which lends itself to aging in steel and wood and shows a great propensity for aging, with the development of interesting tertiary aromas. It is a grape that also lends itself to over-ripening in the vineyard to make late harvest or to be stored to dry in the fruit cellar for the subsequent production of passito wines, such as the famous Recioto di Soave and Gambellara

Garnacha

Gewürztraminer

Gewürztraminer is a vine identical in DNA to Traminer and represents the aromatic variant of the Savagnin grape. Widely widespread in Italy and France, with particular success in Alsace, the Gewürztraminer has experienced some success in Argentina, Australia and the United States. Gewürztraminer wine is very recognizable for its aromatic intensity and depth of body but this breadth in the content of aromas such as rose and lychee, grapefruit, ginger often makes it excessive for some. For this reason it is good to consume Gewürztraminer when the acidity is well preserved during the first years of production. In this regard, it is precisely in Alsace that Gewürztraminer takes on a more defined identity and that, without excessive aromatic dispersion, manages to reveal composure and a harmonious touch. The maturity of the Gewürztraminer clusters confirms high sugar levels for wines that can reach up to 14 °. If the aromatic charge remains the distinctive aspect of the variety, it is very common for those dedicated to the vinification of Gewürztraminer to avoid malolactic fermentation and any form of oxidation that could compromise this aspect. Gewürztraminer is not particularly easy to cultivate as it produces small clusters and is particularly sensitive to vine diseases and to frosts due to its early budding. Gewürztraminer i produces wines with an intense golden yellow color with persistent floral and fruity notes, a good acidity that supports a slight aging even if the best examples come from the regions of northern Europe such as Styria in Austria and Alto Adige in Italy where it remains. a dry climate and where the growing season ensures more moderate temperatures. How to buy Gewürztraminer online You can buy excellent examples of Gewürztraminer online by exploring the shelves of the Vino.com virtual wine shop. Before buying the Gewürztraminer that's right for you online, you can use the search filters and choose between denominations and producers to find the type that best meets your needs. From northern Italy we recommend that you try the Südtirol - Alto Adige Valle Isarco DOC Gewürztraminer 2020 Adler von Klausen structured and finely aromatic wine, to experiment with some products from Alsace such as the Alsace Grand Cru AOP Gewürztraminer Hengst 2017 Domaine de la Ville de Colmar. In short, buying Gewürztraminer online can be the experience that will enrich your cellar with aromas and fragrances too. What are the characteristics of Gewürztraminer wine? Among the characteristics of Gewürztraminer it is always possible to mention an intense color and the aromatic charge of white, pink and fruit flowers that distinguishes the variety. Characteristic of Gewürztraminer is also the full or medium body which helps to make this wine recognizable and appreciated by many. Which wineries produce Gewürztraminer? In Italy there are many wineries specialized in the production of Gewürztraminer. These include Adler von Klausen, Blumenfeld, Tramin and Hofstätter. Is Gewurztraminer a sparkling wine? Gewürztraminer is usually vinified as still wine but there are producers who choose to make it sparkling with the Martinotti method.

Glera

The glera grape is famous for being the basis of Prosecco production. In reality, the introduction of the name glera to replace the ancient name of the Prosecco grape is rather recent and arises from a need for legislative protection and certainly not from ampelographic considerations. The operation had the sole purpose of safeguarding the Prosecco denomination of origin, which could not be defended as long as a grape variety was associated at the end and not a specific production area. It is a semi-aromatic variety spread for centuries in the Triveneto with different biotypes. The bunch is quite large with green berries with golden yellow reflections. It loves sunny hillsides, but with a cool and not too dry climate. The wine has a straw yellow color, with rather simple aromas of white fruit accompanied by some floral notes. In the mouth it is fresh and flowing, with good acid verve and medium persistence. It is almost never vinified still. Its natural destination is linked to the production of sparkling wines with the Charmat method or sparkling wines sur lie according to the ancient tradition of the area.

Glera, Pinot Nero

Godello

Grecanico

Grechetto

The Grechetto grape is widespread above all in central Italy, in particular in the areas of Orvieto and Todi. As with many native vines, its origins remain rather mysterious. It is certain, however, that there are two different clones: the Orvieto grechetto, more common and common (clone g109), and the Todi grechetto (clone g5), which actually has the same genetic makeup as the pignoletto grown on the Bologna hills. DNA analyzes have shown that there is a close relationship between the Grechetto of Orvieto and that of Todi, without however being able to establish with certainty a parent-child derivation. From a vine point of view, the Todi grechetto has an earlier ripening period than that of Orvieto. The wine has a straw yellow color with floral hints, citrus aromas, white fruit and exotic hints. It has a good structure, with a harmonious sip, low acidity and a finish with an almond note.

Greco

Greek is an ancient white grape variety, which was most likely introduced to the lands of Campania by the first Greek colonists who landed in southern Italy. It is a grape of great quality, widespread throughout Campania and in particular in Irpinia and Benevento. It expresses itself particularly well on volcanic soils, where it gives intense, structured, complex and very long-lasting whites.

Grenache

The Grenache grape is widely present in southern France, where it came from neighboring Spain. It is a very widespread variety in the Mediterranean area and among the most widespread in the world. In France it expresses itself particularly well in the lower Rhone area, in particular in Châteauneuf-du-Pape, where with small additions of mourvedre, syrah, cinsault and other local vines, it gives reds of extreme finesse and class, especially if grown on typical soils by galets roulés. Other interesting grenache-based wines are those produced in the nearby appellations of Gigondas and Vaqueyras. Vinified in purity, it expresses rather alcoholic wines, with aromas of red fruit, thick tannins and balanced freshness.

Grignolino

Grillo

Cricket is a white grape variety especially widespread in Western Sicily Marsala. Recent discoveries trace its origin back to the Agrigento municipality of Favara, from a cross between the Sicilian autochthonous varieties Cataratto and Zibibbo. It is a medium-late ripening vine and produces a straw yellow wine, from which wines with typical herbaceous and floral hints, of great freshness, derive. We can find the Grillo grape variety in Sicilian denominations including Alcamo DOC, Contea di Sclafani DOC and Mamertino DOC, it is also the essential base for the production of Marsala.

Groppello

Gros Manseng

Grüner Veltliner

Grüner Veltliner is a white grape variety originating in Central Europe and widespread above all in Austria, where it is by far the most widespread variety, so much so as to be the true enological symbol of the country. It is an ancient vine, which loves cold weather and strong temperature changes. In Italy it has found a home in the Isarco Valley, the most northerly planted area of our peninsula. Grüner Veltliner is a generous grape variety, which must be grown with low yields to obtain quality wines. Its bouquet expresses pleasant citrus notes, of lime, grapefruit, vegetable hints, aromas of white fruit, tropical nuances and a characteristic spiciness reminiscent of white pepper. The sip is dynamic and vibrant, always supported by a rather high acidity. Its characteristics of finesse and elegance require combinations with fish dishes or delicate white meats.

Incrocio Manzoni

Incrocio Manzoni, Marzemino

Insolia

Insolia is a white grape variety grown for centuries in Sicily. It is also present with the name of ansonica also along the Tuscan coast of Argentario and in the islands of the Tuscan archipelago, in particular in Elba and Giglio. It is a grape variety that adapts very well to arid, dry and well-ventilated climates. It has a fairly early ripening and produces medium-large bunches with golden yellow berries. It is often vinified together with catarratto, cricket or chardonnay. Vinification in purity requires particular attention for a natural tendency of insolia to oxidation. In the glass it has a light yellow color with bright golden reflections. The bouquet is intense with floral and fruity aromas. The sip is typically Mediterranean, harmonious, soft, with balanced acidity and a persistent finish. It is a perfect fish wine, to be combined with typical seafood dishes.

Kerner

Lacrima

Lagrein

Lagrein is a native red grape variety from South Tyrol, born from a spontaneous cross between the teroldego and an ancient unknown variety. It is a grape that produces rather rustic and rough wines, with a good structure, but not particularly refined and with a modest propensity for aging.

Lambrusco

Lambrusco Di Sorbara

Lambrusco di Sorbara belongs to the vitis lambrusca family , which gathers a series of varieties selected from a long domestication process of wild vines present in the Emilia-Romagna area.The current area of greatest cultivation is the Modena area, where it has found the natural habitat to better express itself on alluvial soils, with the presence of sands and pebbles. Like all Lambrusco vines, it still retains a somewhat wild character, which is expressed in a rather aggressive acidity and in a profile with harsh and decisive tones. The plant has a good vigor and a constant productivity, even if it can present phenomena of acinellatura, with consequent poor yields but of good quality. Lambrusco di Sorbara produces wines that are appreciated above all for their lively gustatory immediacy, for their fresh fragrance and ease of drinking. The color is bright ruby red, with a rich foam with an intense pink color. The nose reveals aromas of violet, strawberry and cherry. On the palate it is characterized by a great momentum of acid freshness, which is diluted in pleasant fruity aromas and in a slightly savory finish.

Lambrusco Grasparossa

Lambrusco Maestri

Lambrusco Marani

Lambrusco Salamino

Loureiro

Macabeo

Maceratino

Malbec

The Malbec grape variety originates from the south-western area of France, in particular from Cahors. Known in ancient times as Cot or Noir de Pressac, it later takes its name from the winemaker Malbeck who has widely spread it. From DNA analyzes it seems that it derives from the spontaneous crossing between Prunelard and Magdeleine Noire des Charentes, an old French variety, also ancestor of Merlot. The Malbec grape was introduced to Argentina in the mid-1800s, where it found ideal conditions for expressing itself on interesting quality levels. In particular, the cultivation at high altitude has highlighted a more refined profile, with more elegant tannins and great aromatic concentration. Today in Argentina it is cultivated on over 26,000 hectares and is the most common red grape variety ever, while in France there are only about 1,000 hectares left, cultivated in the Medoc area, where it is used in a small percentage in Bordeaux cuts. It is a plant that produces quite large bunches, with dark blue, almost black peel berries. The wine has an intense ruby red color. The nose expresses a bouquet with notes of plum, red fruit and slightly vegetal hints. The sip is rich, warm with an important tannic texture and moderate freshness.

Malvasia

The name Malvasia contains within it a large family of vines widespread in many countries of the Mediterranean basin. These are more or less aromatic white or red berried grapes, which have quite heterogeneous varietal characters. The name derives from the Greek port of Peloponnese Monemvasia, from where ships loaded with wine departed for the main ports of the Mediterranean, in particular during the Venetian domination of the 11th century. The vine, however, seems to have originated in Crete or in any case in the Aegean area and then spread with the first Greek colonization. As many as 17 different types of malvasia are registered in the Italian national register of varieties. The success of the grape is due to its natural aromaticity. The grapes already have the same set of perfumes that we will find in the wine. It is obviously impossible to define a standard of the characteristics of malvasia, precisely because of the great genetic variability of the grapes grown under this name.

Malvasia Di Candia

Malvasia Istriana

Mammolo

Manzoni Moscato

Manzoni Rosa

Marzemino

Marzemino is an autochthonous red grape variety from Trentino, particularly widespread in Vallagarina, born from a spontaneous cross between the teroldego and an ancient grape now unknown. It produces a wine with a floral and fruity bouquet, harmonious and balanced, with subtle tannins and the right acidity.

Mauzac

Melon De Bourgogne

Mencía

Merlot

Merlot is one of the most known and cultivated vines in the world. It is originally from Bordeaux and was born from a spontaneous cross between cabernet franc and an ancient variety that has now disappeared, known as the magdeleine noire des Charentes. In France it is mainly grown in Saint-Émilion and Pomerol. It is used in the famous Bordeaux cuts, to give fruity aromas, softness and roundness. In Italy it is grown in many regions, but especially in the Triveneto area.

Minutolo

Monica

Montepulciano

Montepulciano is the vine from which Montepulciano wine is produced. Montepulciano grapes have a late ripening characterized by berries with very thick skin. Well known and used in Italy, it is widespread in various regions of central and southern areas such as Emilia-Romagna, Marche, Lazio, Umbria, Abruzzo, Molise, Campania, Basilicata and Puglia. Not to be confused with the Nobile di Montepulciano, a wine produced from Sangiovese grapes, Montepulciano comes with all certainty from the Abruzzo region and, in particular, from the Pescara area. With almost 35.00 hectares of vines, Montepulciano remains the most cultivated black grape variety in Italy after Sangiovese and lends itself very well to the composition of various types of blends. Montepulciano is characterized by intense aromas of red and black fruits such as plum and blackberry, always accompanied by a fine spiciness that becomes more decisive with aging and that refers to cinnamon and dried herbs such as thyme and marjoram. Of chromatic impact with its intense and full reds, Montepulciano is a wine of great structure, it is enveloping and full, with tannins measured with a little refinement, long persistence and suitable for aging. For many, Montepulciano can present a vinous taste and a distinct tannic charge, characteristics that an adequate refinement gives a softer and more gentle wine, with a tasty and recognizable aromatic spectrum. In Abruzzo the most prestigious denomination concerns the Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane but there are valid examples for other denominations such as Conero, Castelli Romani, Colli di Rimini. Montepulciano also appears in the DOC Cerasuolo d'Abruzzo which hosts a very fresh and appreciated rosé especially in combination with regional Abruzzo dishes. Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Montepulciano d'Abruzzo probably takes its name from the region of origin of the Montepulciano grape. Its diffusion can find in some written testimonies of the mid-18th century the proof that this vine was known and cultivated in the Abruzzo area. The combination of hilly slopes in the Pescara area and the presence of the Apennine mountains most likely made Montepulciano d'Abruzzo resistant to phylloxera during the late 19th century. From the Peligna Valley to the areas that slope down towards the Adriatic, Montepulciano d'Abruzzo expresses its maximum power to connote the important denominations located in the provinces of Chieti, L'Aquila, Pescara and Teramo. The Montepulciano d'Abruzzo DOC appellation requires the presence of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo in a quantity of not less than 85% and, even in the Riserva versions, it allows 15% of non-aromatic Abruzzo varieties. This DOC includes 5 sub-areas that can be mentioned on the label including Casauria, Alto Tirino and Terre dei Peligni. Another denomination that makes use of 90% of Montepulciano d'Abruzzo and 10% of Sangiovese is the Montepulciano d'Abruzzo Colline Teramane DOCG: the wines that fall under this denomination must age at least one year in cask with two months in the bottle, while the Riserva version remains at least three years in wood and two months in the bottle. What are the characteristics of Montepulciano wine? Montepulciano has various characteristics in reference to drinkability. When young it has fruity aromas with cherry, plum and blackberry that make the taste direct, with evident tannins and medium structure. With aging, the wine acquires body and structure, offering smoother and more silky tannins, a full body and a long persistence on the palate. Is Montepulciano a red wine? Montepulciano is a traditionally red wine that stands out for its power and aromatic impetus, both in the young versions and in those aged in wood. Cerasuolo d'Abruzzo is a rosé wine produced with Montepulciano d'Abruzzo grapes for which a short maceration of the must is required in contact with the skins. Is Montepulciano a still wine? Montepulciano is usually vinified as a still wine. However, there are producers willing to compete with sparkling wine and pushed to create sparkling wines based on Montepulciano grapes.

Moscadello

Moscato

Moscato Bianco

Muscat grapes represent one of the great families of vines present in the Mediterranean basin. It is one of the oldest varieties ever, already cultivated by the Greeks and loved by the ancient Romans, who used to define with the term apiane all the sweet grapes, which attracted bees. The name seems to derive from the term muscus to underline the aroma of musk that characterizes the aromatic spectrum of the grapes and their wines. White muscat in Italy is widespread in many regions: Muscat of Trani, Syracuse, Noto, Chambave, Montalcino, Tempio Pausania, but certainly the most famous area by far for the cultivation of this variety is Piedmont, in particular the Asti area and the Canelli area. Abroad, it is present in Greece, France, Spain and Romania. In Piedmont it is the most widely cultivated white berried grape, especially for the production of sparkling wines with the Charmat method. The wine has a straw yellow color, with a characteristic bouquet of orange blossom, citrus, white peach and musk. The sip is intensely aromatic, juicy and rich but always supported by good acidity.

Moscato Giallo

It is a variety that belongs to the large and heterogeneous family of Muscat grapes. It seems that the origins of the yellow muscat are Middle Eastern, also for the ancient name that identified it as Muscat of Syria. In Italy it is grown mainly in Trentino Alto-Adige and in the province of Padua with the name Fior d'Arancio.

Moscato Rosa

Muscadet

Muskat Ottonel

Müller Thurgau

Müller-Thurgau is a recently introduced grape variety. It was born at the end of the 19th century by the Swiss researcher Hermann Müller, a native of Thurgau, who among the various experiments to create new varieties, crossed the Rhine Riesling with the madeleine royale and not with the sylvaner as had long been believed. The new grape variety has had some success and today it is grown mainly in Germany, Austria and Hungary. In Italy it is present in Trentino-Alto Adige, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Veneto. It loves the cool climate and can be grown up to an altitude of 800/900 meters above sea level. It is a semi-aromatic grape variety that produces wines with a straw yellow color. The nose expresses floral and fruity aromas of good intensity. The sip is harmonious and balanced, with good fruit richness but rather lacking acidity. Despite some commercial success, it has not maintained the noble characteristics of its riesling parent.

Nascetta

Nasco

Nebbiolo

Nebbiolo is one of the most ancient and noble vines of our rich ampelographic heritage. It is an autochthonous red berried grape originally from Piedmont and in particular from the Langhe area, where it is expressed at the highest levels in the denominations of Barbaresco and Barolo. It is also cultivated in the nearby Roero region, in Valtellina with the name of Chiavennasca and in the small Sardinian enclave of Luras, where it was introduced by the Piedmontese in the 19th century. It is an extremely territorial variety and demanding from a soil and climatic point of view, so much so that it is not grown almost anywhere else in the world outside the territory of origin. It has a late ripening, with harvest in mid-October and needs sunny, breezy exposures, but a cool climate with good temperature ranges. As for the soils, it prefers soils composed of calcareous clayey marls, which enhance its natural elegance. It is one of the few vines capable of combining power and expressive finesse. The refined bouquet combines a dense tannic texture and high acidity, which always guarantee great balance and remarkable longevity.

Negroamaro

Negroamaro is widespread especially in the provinces of Lecce, Brindisi and Taranto. It is a grape from ancient history, perhaps introduced on the Ionian coast at the time of Greek colonization. The name most likely derives from the expression niru-mavru or, from the repetition of the word black, in Latin niger and in Greek μα? ρος. Black-black, just to underline the intensity, which characterizes its dark color. Vinified in purity it expresses aromas of cherry, small red berry fruits and spices, with a beautiful tannic texture and good freshness.

Nerello Mascalese

Nerello mascalese is a red berried variety spread above all on Etna, it can also be found throughout north-eastern Sicily and along the Tyrrhenian coast of Calabria. It is a vine with noble characteristics, still today it is often cultivated free-footed on soils of volcanic sands, according to the old Greek sapling system. In purity it gives refined and elegant wines, characterized by floral aromas, aromas of small berries and spices. The tannic texture is fine and the lively freshness.

Nero Buono

Nero D'Avola

Nero Di Troia

Nosiola

Nuragus

Pagadebit

Palomino

Passerina

Passerina is a white grape variety of central Italy, rediscovered in recent decades. It is widespread especially in the border land between the Marche and Abruzzo, in particular in the Offida area. Its curious name seems to derive from the fact that sparrows love to peck its tasty berries. The wine is very interesting for its fresh, citrus and pleasantly fruity profile. It is a simple white, which thanks to its good natural acidity, is also sparkling with the Martinotti Method.

Pecorino

Pecorino is an autochthonous white grape variety historically present in central Italy, especially in the border area between the Marche and Abruzzo. For a long time forgotten, it has been rediscovered and valued only in the last decades, thanks to a renewed attention to the native vines. Vinified in purity, it gives a white wine with a good structure, intense and complex, with a rich, wide sip, always supported by a good freshness. Pleasant to taste young, it also has excellent qualities of evolution and aging.

Pedro Ximénez

The pedro ximénez is an Iberian white grape variety widespread especially in southern Spain, particularly in the region of Andalusia. It is used in the Jerez area for the production of oxidative sweet wines, which stand out for their long aging and for the development of particularly rich and complex bouquets, with persuasive notes of dried fruit, dates, figs and honey.

Perricone

Petit Verdot

The petit verdot is a red grape variety historically present in the area of south-western France, in particular in the Médoc, where it is used in small percentages in the Bordeaux cuts together with cabernet sauvignon, cabernet franc and merlot. It is a late grape variety, which in the cool climate of Bordeaux struggles and reaches full maturity. However its contribution to Bordeaux red wines is particularly appreciated for the spicy notes, for the structure and tannic texture, which give the wines longevity. In Italy it is grown in the Bolgheri area, in the Tuscan Maremma, in Lazio and in Sicily. Territories where, thanks to the mild and sunny climate, it manages to mature perfectly, giving intense, rich reds with great personality.

Petite Arvine

Picolit

Picolit is an ancient autochthonous Friulian grape variety, mainly grown in the Colli Orientali area. Its name derives from the fact that it produces not only small bunches, but also sparse ones. It is, in fact, a variety that suffers from floral abortion, or the failure to fertilize the flower, which does not allow the fruit to develop. Picolit grapes are traditionally used to produce an exquisite sweet wine, which was already appreciated in the main European courts during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Even today, dessert wine made with picolit is a delicious nectar of extraordinary gustatory balance. It is a wine of great finesse and elegance, which combines a soft and seductive bouquet with a pleasant freshness.

Piedirosso

Pigato

Pignoletto

Pignolo

Pinot Bianco

From a genetic point of view, DNA analyzes have confirmed that pinot blanc , pinot noir and pinot gris are not three different vines, but three different clones of the same variety. The presence of biotypes that have differentiated over time as a result of spontaneous mutations is not surprising since pinot is one of the oldest vines ever. In fact, it is probably a grape domesticated in ancient times in the central eastern area of France and which still has its cradle of choice in Burgundy. Pinot Blanc in Italy is grown almost exclusively in the Triveneto area, particularly in South Tyrol, where it finds the perfect habitat at altitudes that vary, depending on the exposure, between 500 and 800 meters. It produces delicate wines, of great expressive finesse, with pleasant notes of white fruit. The sip is harmonious and of great balance. It is a ductile white in the combinations and with longevity grain.

Pinot Grigio

DNA analyzes have found that, from a genetic point of view, pinot grigio , pinot bianco and pinot nero are not three different vines, but three clones of the same variety. Pinot is one of the oldest vines, therefore the presence of biotypes, which over the centuries have differentiated by spontaneous mutations, is not surprising. Pinot is most likely a grape domesticated in very ancient times in the central eastern area of France and still has its cradle of choice in Burgundy. Among the three varieties, pinot gris is certainly the most widespread in Italy, especially in the Triveneto area. The grape skin has a beautiful pink color and even the wine can be straw yellow or slightly coppery if there has been a short contact with the skins during the vinification. Its great international success is due to the fruity, rich and seductive bouquet, to its balanced gustatory softness, which expresses great harmony on the palate with an always moderate acidity.

Pinot Nero

From a genetic point of view, DNA analyzes have confirmed pinot noir , pinot blanc and pinot gris are not three different vines, but simply three different clones of the same variety. Pinot is one of the oldest vines ever and for this reason it is not surprising the presence of biotypes, which have differentiated over the centuries due to spontaneous mutations. Most likely it is a grape domesticated in ancient times in the central eastern area of France and which still has its cradle of choice in Burgundy. In Italy pinot noir is present above all in Trentino Alto Adige and Oltrepò Pavese, although there is no shortage of vineyards in Piedmont, especially in Alta Langa for the production of sparkling wine bases and in Friuli Venezia Giulia. It is a very delicate grape, with small, compact bunches and tight grapes. It loves fresh exposures, ventilated with not too high temperatures and prefers soils with limestone components. The wine has a light ruby red color, almost transparent. The aromatic profile is extremely fine, with notes of small berries. The sip is fresh, rich and persistent, with delicate tannins and pleasant freshness. It is a red wine that excels in refined elegance.

Pinotage

Primitivo

Primitivo is a black grape variety widespread especially in southern Italy where it finds the ideal conditions to thrive. It seems that the name of Primitivo derives from the term Primativus used in ancient times to indicate the premature ripening of grapes certified in the Apulian area. The probable arrival in Puglia thanks to the Illyrian people makes it a historically very dated vine. Showing a compact cluster, Primitivo shows great sensitivity to humidity and that is why its diffusion in ventilated areas can help its correct growth without the risk of mold. Highly productive, Primitivo is widely spread in the Salento areas, in the provinces of Lecce and Taranto. Also interesting is the genetic similarity of Primitivo with the Zinfandel widespread in California which gives particularly soft and enveloping wines. Only for a few decades, given the great ability to develop a recognizable aromatic complexity, Primitivo is not only used as a blending grape but vinified in purity and in compliance with the best cellar practices. Widespread with more than 12,000 ht between the regions of Puglia, Abruzzo, Campania and Basilicata, Primitivo appears as a vine of some important denominations such as: Primitivo di Manduria, Salento, Puglia, Salento del Massico, Gioia del Colle, Gravina. Intense ruby red color, tends to garnet with aging. The nose dominates the red and black fruit, such as blueberries, black cherry, plum, while the ability to age in wood leads the wine to develop spicy aromas of pepper and licorice, complementing it with aromas of cocoa and tobacco dust. Soft in the tannic contribution, it is a full and enveloping wine, capable of guaranteeing great persistence. Some refined versions can also be considered meditation. Primitivo di Manduria The spread of Primitivo in the area of Manduria is already attested by Pliny the Elder despite the entry of this vine into the Italian peninsula can be traced back to the Illyrians who decided to spread it before the Roman era. The discreet trade towards the East of the area's wines was so intense in the Middle Ages that the name 'Brindisi', a city famous for its port, could soon represent, as it will be in modern usage, a wish anticipated by drinking good wine. From the Murge area, Primitivo begins to spread in Salento, finding ideal conditions for early ripening: a substantial difference compared to the wines produced in the Gioia del Colle area and consisting of greater body and alcohol content, probably developed for higher temperatures and better conditions for the maturation of the sugars, it was not enough to save Primitivo from its use as a blending wine intended mainly for the French market. Primitivo prefers clayey-calcareous soils and is particularly affected by drought conditions. With a harvest usually carried out at the end of August, the bunches are harvested by hand and the vinification takes place immediately to preserve the integrity of the fruit. Of the 900 ht included in the Primitivo di Manduria denomination, about half are dedicated to the cultivation of the Primitivo vine, while the remainder is dedicated to Negroamaro and Malvasia. The production disciplinary of Primitivo di Manduria DOC provides for a maximum yield of 9 tons per hectare with a yield of grapes not exceeding 70%, the origin of the grapes from company vineyards, the presence of Primitivo for at least 85%. Primitivo di Manduria has an intense ruby red color and releases aromas of plum and red fruits on the nose that evolve into cocoa, tobacco and oriental spices for a strong body, soft and pleasant tannins, great persistence and roundness. What are the characteristics of Primitivo? Primitivo is a vine capable of guaranteeing representative and territorial wines. It lends itself well to the creation of blends but best expresses its characteristics even when vinified alone. Among the characteristics of Primitivo it is possible to identify a great richness of fruit which is expressed in terms of aromatic fragrance and extract. It is able to guarantee full-bodied and full-bodied wines, with very evident hints of plum, blackberry, strawberry, cocoa, licorice, tobacco. Long sip and great compactness on the palate. Which food does Primitivo go best with? Served at a temperature of 18-20 °, Primitivo lends itself to many combinations of regional and national cuisine. In the less refined versions, it can accompany meat sauces, legumes and medium-aged cheeses. The best combination for a Primitivo with body and structure can consist of grilled meats, sheep, lamb or boar stewed or baked. The younger versions are also suitable for first courses with meat sauces or legume soups. A very convincing combination leads it to accompany platters of cold cuts and grilled vegetables. What is the gradation of Primitivo? Primitivo is rich in sugars and therefore able to develop a high alcohol content. The production disciplinary sets the minimum alcohol content at 13.5% for Primitivo di Manduria, while it is 14% for the Primitivo di Manduria Riserva version.

Prié Blanc

Prugnolo Gentile

Raboso

Refosco Dal Peduncolo Rosso

Refosco dal peduncolo rosso is an autochthonous red grape variety from the Friuli Venezia Giulia region. Investigations on its DNA indicate the origin of a cross between marzemino and another variety unknown to date, confirming its belonging to the family of vines in the north-east of Italy. Its characteristic name derives from the red coloration of the peduncle, when the grapes reach full maturity. Today it is grown throughout the region and produces fruity reds, with vinous notes and a rather rustic profile, with exuberant tannins and acidity. Precisely for these characteristics, aging in wood is recommended to bring it back to greater expressive harmony.

Ribolla Gialla

Ribolla Gialla is a white berried variety historically widespread especially in the Collio region, both Italian and Slovenian. Vinified in purity, the ribolla expresses a white with a very fresh profile, with floral and fruity aromas with typical citrus and citrine notes. It is often vinified with maceration on the skins, in particular in the Oslavia area, to produce whites with an intense and structured profile.

Riesling

Riesling is a noble variety, considered among the best ever among the white berried ones. It is historically widespread in the German area, especially in the Moselle region and DNA investigations have revealed a relationship with an ancient European grape of Slavic origin that has almost disappeared today: the gouais blanc. It produces a white wine with extraordinary qualities, which in its youth expresses floral and fruity aromas, but which has an extraordinary potential for evolution over time with the development of resin and hydrocarbon notes. The high basic acidity guarantees an unusual longevity for a white. It is a vine that loves the cold climate and in Italy it is grown in South Tyrol, where it gives the best results in Val Venosta and Valle Isarco.

Rondinella

Rondinella is a dark grape variety from Veronese, widespread especially in the hilly area of Valpolicella, where it is used together with corvina and corvinone to produce the famous reds. It is a productive and resistant variety, which offers medium sized bunches with berries characterized by a consistent skin, which allows a perfect drying of the grapes without the grains being damaged. It is rarely vinified in purity, usually it is part of the ampelographic base of Valpolicella, Amarone and Recioto wine.

Rossese Bianco

Ruchè

Sagrantino

The Sagrantino grape is grown almost exclusively in Umbria, particularly in the Montefalco area. Its origins remain rather mysterious and for centuries the local winemakers have used its grapes almost exclusively to produce passito wines to be consumed during the most important religious holidays. Its name derives from the Latin term sacer. It is a variety that has risked disappearing in the face of the progress of the great international red vines. Only thanks to the tenacity and passion of some Montefalco producers did he survive. Only in the 70s / 80s did Sagrantino begin to be vinified in red to produce dry wines. It is not an easy grape variety. The presence of important tannins requires long periods of aging in wood in order to dampen the grumpy and hard character and acquire more mature and harmonious notes. The color is intense red. The bouquet expresses aromas of berries, blackberries, black currants and spices. The sip is of great structure, with a warm and powerful body, supported by a dense tannic texture and good acidity. It is a great pairing red, to be tasted especially with meat dishes, such as braised meat or game of fur.

Sangiovese

Sangiovese is the symbolic grape of Tuscany, but it is grown not only in central Italy but a bit in all regions, so much so that it is the most common red berried variety on the national territory. Today it is present in many clones, which can be identified in two large groups: sangiovese grosso (brunello di Montalcino, blackthorn kind of Montepulciano, sangiovese grosso di Lamole, sangiovese from Romagna) and small sangiovese. It is a grape of good ductility, which adapts to different soil and climatic conditions, providing distinctly territorial wines. Its origins have been shrouded in mystery for a long time, enough to suggest that it was a grape grown since the time of the Etruscans. Today, thanks to DNA analysis, we know that it is a cross, probably spontaneous, between the cherry tree and a grape from southern Italy: the Calabrian from Montenuovo. It prefers well sunny exposures, with a cool and windy climate. It offers the best if grown on poor soils, rich in skeleton and with a good percentage of limestone. The wine has a bright ruby red color. The nose reveals characteristic aromas of cherry, morello cherry and ripe red fruit. On the palate it is full-bodied, with thick and elegant tannins, good freshness and aromatic persistence.

Sauvignon Blanc

Sauvignon Blanc is one of the most popular and popular white grape varieties in the world. It is a variety native to the Loire Valley region, which then spread to Bordeaux. DNA analyzes have revealed its relationship with savagnin, one of the oldest vines in central Europe, which could be one of the parents of the sauvignon blanc. It is a semi-aromatic variety of great charm and is now cultivated in many countries of the world, in particular in New Zealand, California, Australia, Chile and South Africa. In Italy it is mainly present in Friuli Venezia Giulia and South Tyrol. The wine has a straw yellow color with greenish reflections. The bouquet is very characteristic, with aromas of elderberry, nettle, tomato leaf, gooseberry, citrus. The sip is fresh with fruity aromas that turn on exotic fruits. The finish is pleasantly persistent.

Schiava

The schiava is the red berried grape symbol of the Alto Adige winemaking tradition. Before the region's recent white revolution, the schiava was the most cultivated grape variety in South Tyrol, to produce quantity wines with a rather poor quality. Today it is mainly grown in the area of Santa Maddalena and Caldaro. Thanks to the low yields and careful attention to winemaking, the slave has established itself as a very interesting and modern red. Its fruity profile, its medium-bodied structure and the ease of drinking, make it a very pleasant and particularly flexible wine to pair with.

Sirica

Susumaniello

Sylvaner

Sylvaner is a white grape variety most likely native to the area of central Europe, currently occupied by Germany and Austria. DNA analyzes have indicated that it is a spontaneous cross between savagnin blanc or traminer and an ancient Central European white berried variety: the Österreichisch weiss. In Italy it was introduced at the beginning of the 1900s and found its perfect habitat in South Tyrol, in particular in the northernmost and coolest area of the Isarco Valley. It is a variety that loves cold weather, sunny and well-ventilated exposures. It produces rather small and compact bunches with rounded berries with a greenish yellow skin. Vinified in purity it gives very interesting, elegant and refined wines, with delicate fruity notes and good freshness.

Syrah

Syrah is a red grape variety widespread especially in the French region of the Rhone Valley. Contrary to what had been thought in the past, telling the name and its spicy notes, it is not an oriental grape variety brought to Hermitage by some knights returning from the Crusades. Much more prosaically, the syrah arises from a spontaneous cross between the mondeuse blanc, an ancient variety of Savoy, and the duraza, a grape variety native to the Ardeche region. Today the syrah is the grape variety symbol of the wines of the upper Rhone Valley, in particular of the Appellation Côte-Rôtie, Hermitage, Crozes-Hermitage, Cornas is also among the grapes used to produce the wines of the Lower Rhone region: Gigondas Vaqueyras and above all Châteauneuf-du-Pape. It is a variety that produces wines with good structure, with floral aromas, of small berries, embellished with the characteristic notes of oriental spices and black pepper. In Italy it is cultivated with excellent results in Tuscany, both in purity in the Cortona area and in the Bolgheri area as a complementary variety to cabernet sauvignon, cabernet franc and merlot in the Supertuscan blends. It is also cultivated with interesting results also in Sicily. In the rest of the world it is widespread especially in Australia with the name of Shiraz.

Sémillon

Sémillon is a French white grape variety. It originates from the Bordeaux area but is more generally spread throughout the region of south-western France. It is a generous variety, which produces medium-sized clusters with a cylindrical shape, with round berries, which when fully ripe assume a golden yellow color, with the superficial presence of abundant bloom. It is mainly grown in the Bordeaux area to produce passito wines and some dry white wines. The areas in which it is most widespread are, in fact, those of the famous denominations of Sauternes et Barsac, but it is also present in Pessac-Léognan, in the Graves area, in Bergerac and Monbazillac. It is hardly vinified alone, it is almost always used together with sauvignon blanc. The wine has a rich profile, with aromas of white flowers, intense fruity aromas of pineapple, exotic fruit and hints of dried fruit. With aging, the bouquet is enriched with notes of spices, pepper and candied fruit. In Italy it is under-cultivated and in the rest of the world it is present mainly in Australia, New Zealand, California, Chile, Argentina and South Africa.

Tannat

Tempranillo

Tempranillo is the most famous red grape variety in Spain. Thanks to its early ripening and a rather short vegetative cycle, it has adapted well to the cool areas of northern Spain. In particular in the Rioja region it produces some of the best reds of Spain both vinified in purity and together with garnacha. The vine is also widespread in Portugal with the name of tinta roriz, especially in the Douro and Alentejo regions. In Italy it is grown in Lazio and Tuscany, where it is known by the name of black malvasia . The wine has a great structure, rich, quite alcoholic, with an important tannic texture and moderate acidity.

Teroldego

Teroldego is a red berried grape historically present for centuries in Trentino. It is a very old variety, related to the Ardeche duress (syrah's parent) and descendant, probably with second degree kinship, from the Pinot family. Its ancient presence in Trentino is also testified by the fact that two other red berried vines widespread in the region: lagrein and marzemino, descend from spontaneous crossings between the teroldego and another red berried variety unknown today and perhaps now extinct. Over the centuries, the teroldego has found its land of choice in the vast alluvial area of Campo Rotaliano, in particular in the territories of the municipalities of Mezzacorona, Mezzolombardo and San Michele alL'Adige. Vinified in purity, it produces a medium-bodied wine, with fruity aromas, delicate spicy and balsamic nuances, good freshness and rather subtle tannins.

Teroldego Rotaliano

Timorasso

Timorasso is an ancient indigenous white grape variety, present above all in the Colli Tortonesi area, on the border between Piedmont and Lombardy. Before the phylloxera crisis, it was widespread, not only in the territory of Tortona, but also in the nearby Piedmontese provinces of Novara and Alessandria. In the reconstruction of the post-phylloxera vineyards, more generous and constant grape varieties were preferred in production, such as Cortese and Barbera. The timorasso thus risked disappearing definitively, if it had not been for the tenacity and commitment of a few winemakers, who bet on its potential and its rebirth. Today timorasso is considered one of the most interesting autochthonous white grape varieties of northern Italy, above all for its structure and longevity, which gives tertiary evolutions on the notes of resin and hydrocarbon.

Tintilia

Torbato

Torrontés

Torrontés is the most common white grape variety in Argentina, most likely it originates from Spain and was imported to South America during the period of colonialism. It is cultivated a bit all over the country and thanks to its resistance to altitude it has adapted very well also to the Andean climate. Vinified in purity, it gives very interesting and characteristic wines. It expresses an intense and aromatic bouquet, with floral notes, rich and ripe fruity aromas, with nuances of exotic fruit. The sip is always well balanced thanks to the presence of a good base acidity.

Trebbiano

The generic name of Trebbiano includes a vast family of very different vines. It is the most cultivated white berried grape variety in Italy and is present in almost all the regions of central and southern Italy, in particular in Tuscany and Abruzzo. Its success is mainly due to the good vigor and productivity, which in past centuries have made it preferable to other varieties, precisely because of its abundant harvests. In Tuscany it is often vinified together with the white malvasia of Chianti, while in Abruzzo it is produced in purity with qualitatively interesting results. The low yield cultivation provides wines with good body, with complex and deep aromas, high acidity and good propensity to aging.

Trebbiano Di Lugana

The Trebbiano di Lugana or turbiana is a white grape variety grown in a small area south of Lake Garda. In this area, between the provinces of Brescia and Verona, the Trebbiano di Lugana has found a perfect habitat, thanks to the almost Mediterranean climate of the southern Garda coast, always mitigated by the gentle breezes of the lake. The lands are of ancient glacial origin, with a flat area formed by deposits of white clays, rich in limestone and minerals and a band of low morainic hills with a very sweet profile. From a genetic point of view, the Trebbiano di Lugana shares DNA with the nearby Trebbiano di Soave and the Verdicchio Marche. They are, in fact, different clones of a single grape variety, which then differentiated over time and which express different wines also in relation to the terroir in which they are grown. Lugana wine is a white with a floral and fruity profile, with good structure and lively acidity. It is a very ductile variety, which allows to produce sparkling wines with the Classic Method, still wines, late harvests and passito wines, all of excellent quality. It also has considerable potential for evolution towards tertiary aromas and is one of the Italian whites who is not afraid of the passage of time.

Ugni Blanc

Verdeca

Verdicchio

Verdicchio is one of the most interesting Italian white grape varieties. It is grown in the Marche, both in the hilly area of the Castelli di Jesi, which from the first reliefs of the Apennines descends towards the Adriatic coast, and in the Matelica area. The Matelica valley is a real particularity. Unlike the other Apennine valleys, which are oriented from west to east, it has a north-south development, parallel to the mountain ridge. Here the Verdicchio does not see the sea and is grown in an area with a continental climate, with lower temperatures, which mark its profile with fresher and less Mediterranean characteristics compared to wines from the Jesi area. From a genetic point of view, Verdicchio shares DNA with Trebbiano di Soave and Trebbiano di Lugana. They are, in fact, different clones of a single grape variety, which have differentiated with the passage of time and which express different wines also in relation to the terroir in which they are grown. Verdicchio expresses well-structured wines, with intense fruit aromas and floral scents, always accompanied by lashing acidity. It is one of the Italian whites that ages best, giving interesting aromatic evolutions.

Verduzzo

Vermentino

Vermentino is a white grape variety grown mainly in Sardinia, in eastern Liguria and along the Tuscan coast, in particular in the Bolgheri area. It is also present in Corsica and in the south of France, where it is called Rolle. It is a typically Mediterranean grape variety, which loves the warm, sunny climate and bears the wind well. Its origins still remain quite mysterious, but DNA analyzes have revealed that vermentino , pigato and favored, are actually different clones of a single grape variety, which then differentiated over the centuries also according to the different terroirs. It is the most common white grape variety in Sardinia, where it is expressed on high quality levels, in particular in the Gallura area. The wine has a bouquet characterized by fruity aromas and hints of Mediterranean scrub, it is rather alcoholic and with moderate acidity.

Vernaccia

Vernaccia Nera

Vespaiola

Vespolina

Viognier

Viogner is a French white grape variety native to the Rhône region. DNA analysts have shown a close relationship with the mondeuse blanche, in turn one of the parents of the syrah grape. Even in the absence of a precise genealogical tree, a relationship can therefore be affirmed between the two great varieties typical of the Rhone Valley. It is a grape variety that has experienced mixed fortunes and has risked disappearing altogether. In the 1960s, a few dozen hectares of vines remained in France and it is only thanks to the work of some passionate vignerons that it began to be cultivated above all in Condrieu. Today, as well as in the Rhone Valley, it is present in Languedoc-Roussillon, in the United States, Australia and in other countries of the New World. In Italy it is grown with good results in Lazio, Tuscany and Sicily. The wine has a light yellow color with golden reflections. The nose is dominated by ripe peach and apricot aromas. The sip is large, rich and fruity, with a rather high alcohol content and moderate acidity.

Zibibbo

The term zibibbo derives from the Arabic word zibibb , which meant dried grapes. In reality, the name of the grape variety is Muscat of Alexandria and, as the name implies, it comes from Egypt or more generally from the Middle East area. It is an ancient variety born from the cross between white muscat and an ancient Greek grape: eftakoilo or heptakilo. For centuries it has been cultivated in the western part of Sicily, in particular in the Trapani area and on the island of Pantelleria. It is a typically Mediterranean variety, which loves heat, wind, endures dry, dry climate and adapts very well to poor and stony soils, especially if of volcanic origin. It produces clusters with an elongated shape, with rather large berries with a thick skin covered with bloom. It is an aromatic grape with a sweet taste, which traditionally was used both as a table grape and for making wine. Precisely for its persuasive aromas, the zibibbo was mainly used to produce raisins or to make raisin wines. Especially the island of Pantelleria, where zibibbo has always been grown almost exclusively, has become famous precisely for the production of extraordinary raisin wines. In recent decades, in the face of a progressive decline in the consumption of sweet wines, the production of dry wines with a very interesting and pleasant taste has increased. It is white that expresses an intense and elegant bouquet, with aromas of orange blossom, citrus fruits, ripe fruit, tropical hints, nuances of aromatic herbs of the Mediterranean scrub and iodine memories. The sip is soft and persuasive, with a juicy and wide mouth center, well balanced by a lively citrus freshness, which closes with pleasantly sapid sensations. It is a perfect white to taste with seafood appetizers or shellfish. Zibibbo Passito is a wine of great charm, with aromas of candied citrus peel, dried apricot, dehydrated fruit, almond, dried fruit, honey and spices. On the palate it is rich and sweet, with complex and persistent aromas, which anticipate a refreshing finish. It is an ideal dessert wine to accompany classic Sicilian sweets or dry pastries.

Zinfandel

The name zinfandel is used in the United States to indicate a red grape variety, which in reality is nothing other than our primitive. In turn, the primitive grown in Puglia originates from the other side of the Adriatic. From a genetic point of view, in fact, the primitive and consequently also the zinfandel , corresponds to the crljenak kaštelanski grape, identical to an ancient Croatian variety called tribidrag, perhaps of Greek origin. It is an early ripening grape, a characteristic from which the primitive Italian name also derives. Vinified in purity, it expresses intense and fruity red wines, with a rather soft and enveloping profile.

Zweigelt

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